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Measuring Water Velocity and Streamflow in Open-water and Under Ice. John Fulton and Steve Robinson U.S. Geological Survey Joe Ostrowski Middle Atlantic River Forecast Center National Weather Service Dapei Wang Water Survey of Canada. Overview. Evolution of Methods Water Velocity

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measuring water velocity and streamflow in open water and under ice

Measuring Water Velocity and Streamflow in Open-water and Under Ice

John Fulton and Steve Robinson

U.S. Geological Survey

Joe Ostrowski

Middle Atlantic River Forecast Center

National Weather Service

Dapei Wang

Water Survey of Canada

overview
Overview
  • Evolution of Methods
    • Water Velocity
    • Streamflow
  • Open-water and Ice-cover Projects
    • Radar
    • Acoustics
  • The ‘Real Story’ Behind Your Ice Record
evolution of methods
Evolution of Methods

Current-meter methods

umax

Chapra (1997)

evolution of methods1
Evolution of Methods

Darcy, in Proc. Roy. Soc., A (1909)

  • Secondary and vertical flow components develop due to side-wall effects
  • umax may occur below the water surface

Therefore, we need an “alternative” velocity distribution equation

USGS (1904)

evolution of methods2
Evolution of Methods

Information Entropy(probability-based solution for characterizing the velocity distribution)

“y-axis” contains umax

evolution of methods3
Evolution of Methods

A significant amount of information can be derived from the maximum velocity

  • uavg = f (M) umax
  • Q = uavg A
  •  (M) is a measure of a streams “happy place” and does not change with
    • flow
    • velocity
    • stage
    • channel geometry
    • bed form and material
    • slope
    • alignment
nws proof of concept study
NWS Proof-of-Concept Study

Radar guns

“Actual” Stream Flow

Rating Curve

Current-meter method

ADCPs

nws proof of concept study open water
NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water

Steps …

  • y-axis
  • f(M)
  • umax or uD
  • area
  • Q = uavg A = ( umax ) A

Yen (1998)

nws proof of concept study open water1
NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water

Steps …

  • y-axis
  • f(M)
  • umax or uD
  • area
  • Q = uavg A = ( umax ) A

Yen (1998)

nws proof of concept study open water2
NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water

Steps …

  • y-axis
  • f(M)
  • umax or uD
  • area
  • Q = uavg A = ( umax ) A

Chiu and others (2001)

nws proof of concept study open water3
NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water

Steps …

  • y-axis
  • f(M)
  • umax or uD
  • area
  • Q = uavg A = ( umax ) A

Yen (1998)

nws proof of concept study open water4
NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water

Steps …

  • y-axis
  • f(M)
  • umax or uD
  • area
  • Q = uavg A = ( umax ) A

Yen (1998)

nws proof of concept study open water5
NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water

Open-waterChartiers Creek at Carnegie, PaDrainage area – 257 mi2Unregulated system

usurf velocity – ADV = 2.6 fps

usurf velocity – radar= 2.5 - 2.6 fps

Discharge methods

Current-meter = 210 cfs

Rating curve = 189 cfs

Entropy regress = 193 cfs

Entropy surf vel = 201 cfs

s.d. = 9 cfs

f = 0.58

nws proof of concept study open water6
NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water

usurf velocity – ADV = 2.4 fps

usurf velocity – radar= 2.0 - 2.3 fps

Susquehanna River at Bloomsburg, PaDrainage area – 10,560 mi2Regulated system

Discharge methods

Current-meter = 10,800 cfs

ADCP = 10,130 cfs

Rating curve = 10,550 cfs

Entropy regress = 10,330 cfs

Entropy surf vel = 9,950 cfs

s.d. = 340 cfs

f = 0.78

nws proof of concept study open water7
NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water

Open-waterBasin DAs – 260 to 24,100 mi2Regulated and non-regulated systems

slide17

NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyIce-cover

Steps …

  • y-axis and f(M) established during open water
  • umax along y-axis
  • area
  • Q = uavg A = ( umax ) A
nws proof of concept study ice cover
NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyIce-cover
  • Red River of the North at Grand Forks, ND (1984 to 2002)
  • Open water measurements
  • Ice measurements were collected by the North Dakota District on
    • 01/20/04
    • 02/05/04
    • 03/02/04
  • f = .596 computed for open-water used to calculate stream flow under ice cover

STA 84

Qact = 463 cfs

Qobs= 476 cfs

diff = 3%

Nolan, K.M. and Jacobson, Jake, Discharge measurements under ice cover, USGS WRIR 00-4257

nws proof of concept study1
NWS Proof-of-Concept Study

Future Efforts …

  • Partnering with the
    • NWS
    • SRBC
    • HIF
    • University of Washington
    • USGS, North Dakota District
    • Water Survey of Canada
  • Wind and precipitation influences
  • Flashy conditions
  • Ice conditions
  • Real-time areas
water survey of canada
Water Survey of Canada

Project Scope

  • Equipment
    • SonTek Argonaut-SW & SL
  • Open-channel flow and flow under ice
  • Flow velocity distribution (FVD) model
water survey of canada1
Water Survey of Canada
  • Vertical velocity distribution in open water
  • universal-velocity-distribution law
  • bed roughness parameter y0b to reflect effects of channel bed roughness
  • hydraulic parameterg to reflect effects of hydraulic gradient
slide22

Water Survey of Canada

  • Vertical velocity distribution under ice cover
  • ice roughness parameter y0i
  • for effects of bottom surface
  • of ice cover
  • approximated by a two-layer
  • scheme
  • lower layer - solely affected
  • by bed roughness
  • upper layer - solely affected
  • by ice roughness
slide23

Water Survey of Canada

  • ADVM SonTek Argonaut-SW @ Chateauguay River
  • Chateauguay River, QC, Canada
  • two SW installations, 400 m apart
  • SW data: Dec. 03 – May 04

Open flows & Flow under ice cover

  • upstream site:

flow depth 2-5 m

channel width ~ 85 m

ice cover 12/11/03 to 3/25/04 21:30

  • downstream site:

flow depth 2-4 m

channel width ~ 40 m

ice cover 1/9/04 9:45 to 3/4 12:00