Measuring Water Velocity and Streamflow in Open-water and Under Ice - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Measuring Water Velocity and Streamflow in Open-water and Under Ice

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  1. Measuring Water Velocity and Streamflow in Open-water and Under Ice John Fulton and Steve Robinson U.S. Geological Survey Joe Ostrowski Middle Atlantic River Forecast Center National Weather Service Dapei Wang Water Survey of Canada

  2. Overview • Evolution of Methods • Water Velocity • Streamflow • Open-water and Ice-cover Projects • Radar • Acoustics • The ‘Real Story’ Behind Your Ice Record

  3. Evolution of Methods

  4. Evolution of Methods Current-meter methods umax Chapra (1997)

  5. Evolution of Methods Darcy, in Proc. Roy. Soc., A (1909) • Secondary and vertical flow components develop due to side-wall effects • umax may occur below the water surface Therefore, we need an “alternative” velocity distribution equation USGS (1904)

  6. Evolution of Methods Information Entropy(probability-based solution for characterizing the velocity distribution) “y-axis” contains umax

  7. Evolution of Methods A significant amount of information can be derived from the maximum velocity • uavg = f (M) umax • Q = uavg A •  (M) is a measure of a streams “happy place” and does not change with • flow • velocity • stage • channel geometry • bed form and material • slope • alignment

  8. NWS Proof-of-Concept Study Radar guns “Actual” Stream Flow Rating Curve Current-meter method ADCPs

  9. NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water Steps … • y-axis • f(M) • umax or uD • area • Q = uavg A = ( umax ) A Yen (1998)

  10. NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water Steps … • y-axis • f(M) • umax or uD • area • Q = uavg A = ( umax ) A Yen (1998)

  11. NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water Steps … • y-axis • f(M) • umax or uD • area • Q = uavg A = ( umax ) A Chiu and others (2001)

  12. NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water Steps … • y-axis • f(M) • umax or uD • area • Q = uavg A = ( umax ) A Yen (1998)

  13. NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water Steps … • y-axis • f(M) • umax or uD • area • Q = uavg A = ( umax ) A Yen (1998)

  14. NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water Open-waterChartiers Creek at Carnegie, PaDrainage area – 257 mi2Unregulated system usurf velocity – ADV = 2.6 fps usurf velocity – radar= 2.5 - 2.6 fps Discharge methods Current-meter = 210 cfs Rating curve = 189 cfs Entropy regress = 193 cfs Entropy surf vel = 201 cfs s.d. = 9 cfs f = 0.58

  15. NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water usurf velocity – ADV = 2.4 fps usurf velocity – radar= 2.0 - 2.3 fps Susquehanna River at Bloomsburg, PaDrainage area – 10,560 mi2Regulated system Discharge methods Current-meter = 10,800 cfs ADCP = 10,130 cfs Rating curve = 10,550 cfs Entropy regress = 10,330 cfs Entropy surf vel = 9,950 cfs s.d. = 340 cfs f = 0.78

  16. NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyOpen-water Open-waterBasin DAs – 260 to 24,100 mi2Regulated and non-regulated systems

  17. NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyIce-cover Steps … • y-axis and f(M) established during open water • umax along y-axis • area • Q = uavg A = ( umax ) A

  18. NWS Proof-of-Concept StudyIce-cover • Red River of the North at Grand Forks, ND (1984 to 2002) • Open water measurements • Ice measurements were collected by the North Dakota District on • 01/20/04 • 02/05/04 • 03/02/04 • f = .596 computed for open-water used to calculate stream flow under ice cover STA 84 Qact = 463 cfs Qobs= 476 cfs diff = 3% Nolan, K.M. and Jacobson, Jake, Discharge measurements under ice cover, USGS WRIR 00-4257

  19. NWS Proof-of-Concept Study Future Efforts … • Partnering with the • NWS • SRBC • HIF • University of Washington • USGS, North Dakota District • Water Survey of Canada • Wind and precipitation influences • Flashy conditions • Ice conditions • Real-time areas

  20. Water Survey of Canada Project Scope • Equipment • SonTek Argonaut-SW & SL • Open-channel flow and flow under ice • Flow velocity distribution (FVD) model

  21. Water Survey of Canada • Vertical velocity distribution in open water • universal-velocity-distribution law • bed roughness parameter y0b to reflect effects of channel bed roughness • hydraulic parameterg to reflect effects of hydraulic gradient

  22. Water Survey of Canada • Vertical velocity distribution under ice cover • ice roughness parameter y0i • for effects of bottom surface • of ice cover • approximated by a two-layer • scheme • lower layer - solely affected • by bed roughness • upper layer - solely affected • by ice roughness

  23. Water Survey of Canada • ADVM SonTek Argonaut-SW @ Chateauguay River • Chateauguay River, QC, Canada • two SW installations, 400 m apart • SW data: Dec. 03 – May 04 Open flows & Flow under ice cover • upstream site: flow depth 2-5 m channel width ~ 85 m ice cover 12/11/03 to 3/25/04 21:30 • downstream site: flow depth 2-4 m channel width ~ 40 m ice cover 1/9/04 9:45 to 3/4 12:00

  24. Water Survey of Canada