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IST 201 Chapter 5 LAN Technologies Ethernet – most widely used technology in LANS In 1970, developed and implemented by: D igital I ntel X erox IEEE 802.3 standard is based on the DIX specification. Ethernet Specifications 802.3 – Ethernet 802.3u – FastEthernet

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ist 201

IST 201

Chapter 5

lan technologies
LAN Technologies
  • Ethernet – most widely used technology in LANS
  • In 1970, developed and implemented by:
    • Digital
    • Intel
    • Xerox
  • IEEE 802.3 standard is based on the DIX specification.
ethernet specifications
Ethernet Specifications
  • 802.3 – Ethernet
  • 802.3u – FastEthernet
  • 802.3z – Gigabit Ethernet (Fiber)
  • 802.3ab – Gigabit Ethernet (UTP)
  • 802.3ae – 10 Gigabit Ethernet
  • Layer 1 specification
media
Media
  • Carries flow of information through a LAN
  • Operates at Layer 1
  • Cat 5 UTP – primary media in Ethernet networks
  • NIC Ports
    • RJ45
    • AUI – attachment unit interface
      • 15 pin connector
      • Unusual
      • Requires a transceiver to convert to RJ45
utp straight through cable
UTP Straight Through Cable

One end: ow o gw bl blw g brw br

One end: ow o gw bl blw g brw br

123 4 5 6 7 8

Receive

Transmit

Used for:Switch  routerComputer  switchComputer  hub

crossover cable
Crossover Cable

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

One end: ow o gw bl blw g brw br

One end: gw g ow bl blw o brw br

3 6 1 4 5 2 7 8

Used for:Router  routerComputer  computerComputer  routerSwitch  switchSwitch  hub

roll over cable
Roll-over Cable

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

One end: ow o gw bl blw g brw br

One end: br brw g blw bl gw o ow

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

slide8
Hubs
  • Multiport repeater
  • Concentrators – central connection point
    • Active – has power
          • re-generates signal & sends out all ports except receiving
    • Intelligent – active
          • microchip w/diagnostics
          • expensive
          • good for troubleshooting
    • Passive – no power
          • connection point
          • does not regenerate the signal
5 4 3 rule
5-4-3 Rule
  • No more than 5 segments connect using 4 hubs
  • Only 3 segments can have hosts
  • Ensures that the signal reaches the destination within a specified time limit to avoid collisions..
wireless
Wireless
  • RF
  • Infrared – req line of site
  • Microwaves
  • No wires
  • Mobile
  • Versatile
  • Convenient
bridges
Bridges
  • Data link layer
  • Connects network segments
  • Builds MAC table of hosts on each segment
    • Filter – looks at the destination MAC address, drops the frame if the destination is on the same segment.
    • Flood – doesn’t have destination MAC address in the bridge table, sends out all ports except receiving one..
    • Forward – picks up frame and forwards out to the correct segment
switch
Switch
  • Multiport bridge
  • Makes decisions based on MAC address
  • Builds MAC table (switching table)
  • Reduce traffic
  • Increase bandwidth
  • Filter
  • Flood
  • Forward

breaks up

collision domain

slide13
NIC
  • Printed circuit board providing network connectivity
  • Operates @ layers 1 and 2 but it is considered a layer 2 device
  • MAC address
peer to peer networks
Peer to Peer Networks
  • Computers connected to act as equal partners
    • No centralized administration
    • Ea. computer may act as a server or client to other computers
    • 10 or fewer
    • Share files
    • Share printers
    • Easy to install
    • Does not scale well
    • Security is low
client server
Client/Server
  • Centralized control
  • Common admin
  • Increased security
  • Scalable – requires authentication
  • Server – additional processing power

RAM

  • Single point of failure
slide16
WANs
  • Networks connected together over a

wide geographic area.

  • Use serial connections
    • Bits of data are transmitted sequentially over a single channel
      • Dedicated leased lines
      • ISDN
      • DSL
      • Cable
leased lines
Leased Lines
  • T1 – 1.544 Mbps
  • T3 – 44.736 Mbps
  • Run PPP or Frame Relay Encapsulations
    • PPP – Point to Point Protocol
    • Frame Relay
slide18
ISDN
  • Integrated Services Digital Network
  • 128 kbps
  • Dial on demand connections
    • BRI (Basic Rate Interface)
      • 2 B channels (64 kbps bearer channels) - data
      • 1 D channel (16 kbps delta channel) – signaling and link management
      • Typically uses PPP encapsulation.
slide19
DSL
  • Digital Subscriber Line
  • 128 kbps – 6.1 Mbps
  • Dial-up connectivity
  • Uses telephone infrastructure
cable
Cable
  • Up to 8 Mbps (maybe higher?)
  • Uses existing cable tv infrastructure
  • Coaxial cable
router purpose
Router Purpose
  • Route packets from source to destination with a LAN
  • Provide connectivity from the LAN to the WAN.
  • Segments a network into subnetworks
  • Breaks up broadcast domains.
router wan serial ports
Router WAN Serial Ports
  • V.35 connectors
  • DTE (data terminal equipment) – on the customer side of the connection
  • DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment) on the ISP side.
    • Provides clock rate
  • CSU/DSU – channel service unit/data service unit
    • Another device that provides clocking with a direct connection.
configuring the router
Configuring the Router
  • Need management connection
    • Roll-over cable/console cable
      • Connects serial port of computerusing DB9 to RJ45 transceiver to Console port (RJ45) on the router
    • Terminal emulation software
      • Hyperterminal w/these settings on the COM port
        • 9600 bps
        • 8 data bits
        • No parity
        • 1 stop bit
        • None
console v auxiliary port
Console v. Auxiliary Port
  • Console port is used for initial router configuration
  • Console management connection is between a pc and the router console port.
  • Management via a modem connection is possible for configuration changes.
  • Modem is connected to the auxiliary port
cisco 2500 router
Cisco 2500 Router
  • DB-15 port
  • Requires a transceiver to convert to a Ethernet port (RJ45)