Hints for Careful Studies of Textbook 2. New College English Integrated Course 2 Meng Ling. Overview. Titles of the Units Topic Areas 1. Ways of Learning About Education 2. Values Celebrities
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New College English
Integrated Course 2
Titles of the Units Topic Areas
1. Ways of Learning About Education
2. Values Celebrities
3. The Generation Gap The relation
between parents and children
4. The Virtual World Computer World
5. Overcoming Obstacles Olympics
6. Women, Half the Sky Women’s liberation, Feminism
7. Learning about English Language
8. Protecting Our Environment Pollution,Environment
■ Theme: Different learning styles
■ The Main Idea: It would be ideal if we can strike a balance between the Chinese and the Western learning styles.
■ Structure of the Text: introduction of the topic by an anecdote – elaboration by comparison and contrast – conclusion by a suggestion
P2 Text A; P10 Points for Discussion; P13 Language Focus; P28 Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks; P29 Essay writing; P287 Model Paper
-- Where and when did the incident take place?
-- Who are the main characters in this incident?
-- What is the attitude of the author and his wife toward Benjamin’s efforts in inserting the key in to the slot?
-- What is the attitude of the hotel staff toward Benjamin’s efforts?
-- Can you sum up the contrast between Chinese and Western ways to learn to fulfill a task?
Para 11 to 13
-- Can you sum up the contrast between the Chinese and the Western attitudes toward creativity and basic skills?
1. What do you think is more important, creativity or basic skills?
2. How do you comment on the learning methods you used in high school?
3. Are you employing new learning methods helpful to the study of college courses? What are they?
4. In your opinion, can we find a better way to approach
education, which strikes a better balance between the
poles of creativity and basic skills?
1. There is no end to learning.
2. What is learned in the cradle is carried to the grave.
3. Questioning is the door of knowledge.
-- Samuel Johnson, British lexicographer and writer
-- 英国词典编纂者和作家 塞缪尔·约翰逊
5．I forget what I was taught, I only remember what I have learned.
-- Patrick White, British novelist
-- 英国小说家 P. 怀特
Comparison and Contrast in Writing
Comparison and contrast come in three different ways.
● Comparison: You are asked to explain how two or more things are alike.
● Contrast:You are asked to explain how two ormorethings are different.
● Comparison and contrast:You are asked to explain how two or more things are alike and different.
Here are two different ways (T-Chart and Venn Diagram) to organize information. As an example, we will look at the Smilodon and the Caribou -- two animals that lived during the Ice Ages.
Characteristics Smilodon Caribou
environment the Arctic the Arctic
diet meat plants
weapons teeth, claw antlers, hooves
teeth sharp, pointed blunt, rounded
animal group mammal mammal
when it lived Ice Ages Ice Ages to present
2. The Venn Diagram:
1. Compare: How were the caribou and the smilodon alike?
2. Contrast: How were the smilodon and the caribou different?
2. The Venn Diagram:
The caribou and the smilodon were both mammals. The smilodon lived in the Arctic regions during the Ice Ages, as did the caribou. Like the smilodon, the caribou was able to protect itself from predators.
2. The Venn Diagram:
Although the caribou and the smilodon were both mammals, they were very different in many ways. The caribou was a plant-eater, unlike the smilodon, which ate meat. The caribou had blunt, rounded teeth for eating plants, whereas the smilodon had sharp, pointed ones. The smilodon became extinct at the end of the Ice Ages, in contrast to the caribou, which still lives in the Arctic regions today.
Useful Expressions for Comparison and Contrast
the same as in contrast to
alike different from
and, as well as however
also, too but
just as, as do,
as did, as does as opposed to
both on the other hand
■Theme:Values: a person’s principles or standards of behavior and his/her judgment of what is important in life.
■The Main Idea: Despite his wealth,Sam Walton remains down-home and devoted to his team.
P32 Text A; P39 Points for Discussion; P42 Language Focus; P58 Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks; P58 Essay writing; P289 Model Paper
●If you should become the richest man or woman in China, what kind of life do you think you would live?
● Some people believe, “There is only one success to be able to spend your own life in your own way.” Do you agree? Give your reasons.
2. What were Sam Walton’s ideas about what is important in life as revealed in the essay?
1. A thousand-mile trip begins with one step.
2. As the touchstone tries gold, so gold tries men.
3. Easy come, easy go.
-- Nathaniel Hawthorn, American writer
-- 美国作家 N. 霍桑
-- Alexandra Dumas, French writer
-- 法国作家 大仲马
To make a character portrait convincing, an author must refrain from telling readers directly what the person is like. Instead, he/she lets readers deduce.
Of all the methods of indirect description, the one used most frequently in Text A is quotation.
The author quotes not only Sam Walton himself, but also his townsfolk and colleagues.
Jamie Beaulieu’s anticipation and the reality he later found out form a contrast. It reveals Sam Walton’s down-home characteristics. When retired company president Ferold F. Arend compared Sam Walton with his previous employer, we appreciate further Sam Walton’s generosity.
■Theme:The generation gap
■ The Main Idea: Father meddled in children’s affairs with good intention, but only to find his efforts unwelcome.
■ Structure of the Text: three settings, three scenes
P66 Text A; P77 Points for Discussion; P80 Language Focus; P94 Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks; P95 Essay writing; P295 Model Paper
●Is there a generation gap between you and your parents?
●What will you do if you have different opinions with your parents?
●What are the major components of a play?
1.What do you think causes the generation gap?
2.What can be done to solve the problem of the generation gap?
2. Spare the rod and spoil the child.
3. Train up a child in the way he should go.
5. All I am, or can be, I owe to my angel mother.
-- Abraham Lincoln, American president
-- 美国总统 A. 林肯
-- John Bunyan, British essayist
-- 英国散文家 J. 班扬
7. The fundamental defect of fathers is that they want their children to be a credit to them.
-- Bertrand Russell, British philosopher
-- 英国哲学家 B. 罗素
Difference Between Speech And Writing
Write a dialogue between Li Ping and Helen on the basis of the following passage.
Li Ping is a Chinese student in the US. He is invited to a party for the first time. He does not know what he should talk about at a party. He asks his friend, Helen, for advice. Helen thinks that at a party people sometimes talk about sports, and current events. She believes that talking about China will be a good topic and people will like it. She also warns Li Ping not to ask about people’s income because it is too personal.
■Theme:The virtual life
■ The Main Idea: Despite the many negative effects of virtual life, the author prefers it to real life.
■ Structure of the Text: contrast between virtual life and real life
P101 Text A; P106 Points for Discussion; P110 Language Focus; P124 Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks; P124 Essay writing; P298 Model Paper
●What are the antonyms of “virtual world” and “virtual life”?
●What are the synonyms for “virtual world”?
●What can people do on the Internet?
●What do you usually do on the Internet, and what websites do you usually log on?
In developing a paragraph by means of the inductive generalization, the writer presents particular instances of a like kind and leads them into valid generalization which serves as his topic sentences. Thus, in the inductive pattern, the topic sentence is likely to appear late in the paragraph, often at the end. The result may be referred to as a periodic paragraph, which, like a periodic sentence, cannot be considered structurally complete at any point before the end.
2. Time and tide wait for no man.
3. Don’t burn the candle at both ends.
4. People need to know one another to be at their honest best.
--Bobbins Staca, British writer
--英国作家 R. 斯达卡
As an early-morning pastime, Susie, my tortoise-colored kitten, would frequent the utility room, swing open the small metal door on the gas heater, and peer at the mechanism inside. During the daytime her favorite toy was not the usual ball of the yarn, but a small musical top. And late at night, when there was sometimes a gentle tapping in the study next to my bedroom, the cause proved the same: in the darkness a soft little paw was playing feline rhythms on the key of my typewriter. For a kitten, Susie had an unusual interest in mechanical things.
For a kitten, Susie had an unusual interest in mechanical things.
2. How does the author draw this conclusion?
By three examples of the kitten’s interest.
3. Analyze Text A and explain how the author uses the technique of induction
--O. Henry, American novelist
6.No matter how strong you are, how notable your attainments, you have enduring significance only in your relationship to others. --Ziegler Edward, American writer
不管你有多么强大, 你的成就多么辉煌, 只有保持你与他人之间的关系, 这一切才会有持久的意义
■ The Main Idea: Dreaming and hard work helped Michael Stone on his way to success.
■ Structure of the Text: narration with a flashback
P147 Text A; P153 Points for Discussion; P156 Language Focus; P172 Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks; P172 Essay writing; P301 Model Paper
A. Discuss in groups the obstacles that you have been faced with in your life.
B. Discuss in groups the ways in which you overcame such difficulties.
C. Discuss in groups the problems that you still have in overcoming these obstacles.
Imagine that you have received unlimited funds to start your own foundation. Brainstorm:
1. How would you like to start it?
2. Who would benefit from your foundation, and how?
3. What special programs would your foundation offer, and why?
-- Use your own words to draw a picture of the stadium on that day, including the weather, Michael’s appearance and inner feeling, the audience’s response, etc.
-- Use your own words to describe what kind of event the pole vault is.
-- From the description of Michael’s parents, what can you learn about his parents?
-- Brainstorm the various obstacles Michael might face during the hard training.
-- What individual characteristics should Michael’s success be attributed to?
-- What’s Michael’s reaction before and after the bar?
-- Why does the author keep the secret about Michael’s blindness until the last sentence?
-- Who would you admire better, a Michael Stone with a sound body or a blind Michael Stone?
1. Work in pairs and find out those details about Michael Stone that show him to be his mother’s boy or his father’s son.
2. Discuss in groups: Dreaming and hard work, which is more important to a person’s success? Why?
As the text consists of the main story and a flashback, the narration has to switch from the ongoing competition to earlier events and then return to the ongoing competition. How does the author manage to make these parts in the text flow smoothly?
1.One way is to repeat a key word in the last sentence of a paragraph in the first sentence of the next paragraph, e.g.
It also has the element of flying, and the thought of flying as high as a two-story building is a mere fantasy to anyone watching such an event.
As long as Michael could remember he had always dreamed of flying.
2.Another way is to pick up a key idea from a previous paragraph and repeat it in the sentence introducing the next paragraph, e.g.
All of Michael’s vaults today seemed to be the reward for his hard work.
1. If you have great talents, industry will improve them; if you have but moderate abilities, industry will supply their deficiency.
-- Joshuas Reynolds, American female essayist
如果你很有天赋，勤勉会使其更加完善；如果你能力一般，勤勉会补足其缺陷。 -- 美国女散文家 J.雷诺兹
2. It never will rain roses: when we want to have more roses we must plant more trees.
-- G. Eliot, British novelist
-- 英国小说家 G.艾略特
-- Mendeleyev，Russian chemist
天才只意味着终身不懈的努力。 -- 俄国化学家 门捷列夫
4. Few things are impossible in themselves; and it is often for want of will, rather than of means, that man fails to succeed. -- La Rocheforcauld, French writer
-- 法国作家 罗切福考尔德
Describing a Person
Some Useful Expressions
■ The Main Idea: The belief in superwomen encourages average women to achieve their goals.
P176 Text A; P183 Points for Discussion; P186 Language Focus; P201 Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks; P201 Essay writing; P306 Model Paper
-- Why is the author still so fascinated by modern superwomen tales?
-- What different opinions do people usually hold about men and women?
-- Does the author believe she could become a superwoman someday?
-- What are the positive sides of superwomen stories?
1. If you had a second life, which one would you prefer to be, a man or a woman? Why?
2. Can you persuade men that women should have great control over their own lives and over society? And for what reasons?
3. Should women have equal job opportunities with men?
4. Can you name some successful women to back up that women are not second-class citizens? What are their common characteristics?
1. Something attempted, something done.
2. The sense of existence is the greatest happiness.
3. We must accept finite disappointment, but we must never lose infinite hope.
4. Fortune never helps the man whose courage fails.
6. The important thing in life is to have a great aim, and the determination to attain it.
-- J.W. Goethe, German poet
-- 德国诗人 J．W．歌德
■ The Main Idea: Because of its tolerance for outside influences, English has become a great language.
P206 Text A; P214 Points for Discussion; P217 Language Focus; P232 Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks; P233 Essay writing; P308 Model Paper
2. Speech is the index/picture of the mind.
3. Speech shows what a man is.
-- Karl Marx, German philosopher
5. Grammar must be learned through language, and not language through grammar.
-- Johann G. Herdor, German philosopher
--德国哲学家 J.G. 赫尔德
-- Ephraem Syrus, American writer
The composition should be in three paragraphs:
1) introduce the causes;
2) report the information given in the graph;
3) conclude the composition by giving some suggestions.
1) The picture shows…
2) This table shows the differences between…
3) The diagram represents…
4) The chart above indicates…
5) The information represented in the graph indicates…
6) As can be seen from the chart, …
7) As is shown in the bar graph, there were…
8) From the diagram it can be seen clearly that…
9) From these figures one can easily see that…
10) According to the graph given above, we can see that…
11) This is an illustration of…/a typical example of…
12) There was a great/slight increase/rise.
13) There has been a sudden/slow/rapid fall/drop…
14) Take the above chart as an example,…
Write a composition entitled “Leading Causes of Road Accidents in China”. The composition should be based on the following graph.
Percentage of Accidents
Motor Vehicles BicyclesPedestrians Others
Your composition should be in three paragraphs:
With the development of the cities, the road accident is becoming a more and more serious problem in China. The information represented in the graph, which depicts the leading causes of road accidents in China, indicates that most accidents are caused by motor vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians.
In the graph we can clearly see that motor vehicles are responsible for the largest part of road accidents, namely about 50% of them. Bicycles account for 35% of the accidents and pedestrians caused nearly 10%. These statistics indicate that motor vehicles have to some extent become a threat to the security of whole society, which endangers people’s lives.
Since we know that motor vehicles are the leading cause of road accidents in China, we should take some measures to improve the situation. First, we should make a law to punish any violators of traffic regulations. Then, cyclists should use hand signals to warn other road users of their intentions. Last but not least, the department concerned should educate ordinary people to walk on a zebra crossing or overpass when they cross a street. All in all, it’s time for us to attach great importance to this problem.
■Theme: Environment protection
■ The Main Idea: We should adopt a sensible environmentalism.
■ Structure of the Text: each part containing a contrast
P238 Text A; P246 Points for Discussion; P249 Language Focus; P265 Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks; P265 Essay writing; P312 Model Paper
-- Franklin D. Roosevelt, American president
-- 美国总统 富兰克林•罗斯福
2. Nature never did betray the heart that loved her.
-- William Wordsworth, British poet
-- 英国诗人 威廉姆•华尔华斯
-- Francis Bacon, British philosopher
-- 英国哲学家 弗朗西斯•培根
4. One touch of nature makes the whole world kin.
-- Shakespeare, British poet and playwright
-- 英国诗人，剧作家 莎士比亚