Hints for Careful Studies of Textbook 2 New College English Integrated Course 2 Meng Ling
Overview Titles of the Units Topic Areas 1. Ways of Learning About Education 2. Values Celebrities 3. The Generation Gap The relation between parents and children 4. The Virtual World Computer World 5. Overcoming Obstacles Olympics 6. Women, Half the Sky Women’s liberation, Feminism 7. Learning about English Language 8. Protecting Our Environment Pollution,Environment
Unit 1 Ways of Learning ■ Theme: Different learning styles ■ The Main Idea: It would be ideal if we can strike a balance between the Chinese and the Western learning styles. ■ Structure of the Text: introduction of the topic by an anecdote – elaboration by comparison and contrast – conclusion by a suggestion ■ Coverage: P2 Text A; P10 Points for Discussion; P13 Language Focus; P28 Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks; P29 Essay writing; P287 Model Paper
■ Warming-up/leading-in, student-involving and thought-provoking questions: • If you find a two-year-old boy is trying to put a key into a box, will you help him immediately? • Can you recall how your parents taught you in your childhood? Did they like to teach you by holding your hand? • Which way did you prefer when you were in trouble with one of your toys in your childhood, turning to your parents for help, or exploring by yourselves?
Detailed questions for discussions in the text: Para 1-5 -- Where and when did the incident take place? -- Who are the main characters in this incident? -- What is the attitude of the author and his wife toward Benjamin’s efforts in inserting the key in to the slot? -- What is the attitude of the hotel staff toward Benjamin’s efforts? Para 6-10 -- Can you sum up the contrast between Chinese and Western ways to learn to fulfill a task? Para 11 to 13 -- Can you sum up the contrast between the Chinese and the Western attitudes toward creativity and basic skills?
Discussion 1. What do you think is more important, creativity or basic skills? 2. How do you comment on the learning methods you used in high school? 3. Are you employing new learning methods helpful to the study of college courses? What are they? 4. In your opinion, can we find a better way to approach education, which strikes a better balance between the poles of creativity and basic skills?
Proverbs and Quotations 1. There is no end to learning. 学无止境。 2. What is learned in the cradle is carried to the grave. 摇篮里学到的东西终身受用。 3. Questioning is the door of knowledge. 提问为通向知识之门。
4. No man ever yet became great by imitation. -- Samuel Johnson, British lexicographer and writer 模仿不成大器。 -- 英国词典编纂者和作家 塞缪尔·约翰逊 5．I forget what I was taught, I only remember what I have learned. -- Patrick White, British novelist 我忘了别人教我的东西，我只记得我自己学的东西。 -- 英国小说家 P. 怀特
Unit 1 Essay Writing Comparison and Contrast in Writing Definition Comparison and contrast come in three different ways. ● Comparison: You are asked to explain how two or more things are alike. ● Contrast:You are asked to explain how two ormorethings are different. ● Comparison and contrast:You are asked to explain how two or more things are alike and different.
Comparison and Contrast in Writing An Example Here are two different ways (T-Chart and Venn Diagram) to organize information. As an example, we will look at the Smilodon and the Caribou -- two animals that lived during the Ice Ages. 1.The T-Chart: Characteristics Smilodon Caribou environment the Arctic the Arctic diet meat plants weapons teeth, claw antlers, hooves teeth sharp, pointed blunt, rounded animal group mammal mammal when it lived Ice Ages Ice Ages to present
Comparison and Contrast in Writing An Example 2. The Venn Diagram: Questions： 1. Compare: How were the caribou and the smilodon alike? 2. Contrast: How were the smilodon and the caribou different?
Comparison and Contrast in Writing An Example 2. The Venn Diagram: The caribou and the smilodon were both mammals. The smilodon lived in the Arctic regions during the Ice Ages, as did the caribou. Like the smilodon, the caribou was able to protect itself from predators.
Comparison and Contrast in Writing An Example 2. The Venn Diagram: Although the caribou and the smilodon were both mammals, they were very different in many ways. The caribou was a plant-eater, unlike the smilodon, which ate meat. The caribou had blunt, rounded teeth for eating plants, whereas the smilodon had sharp, pointed ones. The smilodon became extinct at the end of the Ice Ages, in contrast to the caribou, which still lives in the Arctic regions today.
Comparison and Contrast in Writing Useful Expressions for Comparison and Contrast Comparison Contrast like unlike the same as in contrast to alike different from similar less likewise whereas and, as well as however also, too but just as, as do, as did, as does as opposed to both on the other hand
Unit 2 Values ■Theme:Values: a person’s principles or standards of behavior and his/her judgment of what is important in life. ■The Main Idea: Despite his wealth,Sam Walton remains down-home and devoted to his team. ■Coverage: P32 Text A; P39 Points for Discussion; P42 Language Focus; P58 Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks; P58 Essay writing; P289 Model Paper
■Warming-up/leading-in, student-involving and thought-provoking questions: ●If you should become the richest man or woman in China, what kind of life do you think you would live? ● Some people believe, “There is only one success to be able to spend your own life in your own way.” Do you agree? Give your reasons.
Discussion • Sam Walton was the richest man in America. However, he was able to carry on like plain folks and get away with it. Do you think it’s strange? Why or why not? 2. What were Sam Walton’s ideas about what is important in life as revealed in the essay?
Proverbs and Quotations 1. A thousand-mile trip begins with one step. 千里之行，始于足下。 2. As the touchstone tries gold, so gold tries men. 试金石试金，金钱试人。 3. Easy come, easy go. 来得容易去得快。（易得则易失。）
4. Money is not the root of all evils as is usually claimed; what is the root of all evils is the lust for money, that is the excessive, selfish and greedy pursuit of money. -- Nathaniel Hawthorn, American writer 金钱并非像平常说的那样是万恶之源。而对金钱的贪图，即对金钱过分的、自私的、贪婪的追求，才是一切邪恶的根源。 -- 美国作家 N. 霍桑
5. All for one, one for all. -- Alexandra Dumas, French writer 人人为我，我为人人。 -- 法国作家 大仲马
A Summary of the Writing Techniques To make a character portrait convincing, an author must refrain from telling readers directly what the person is like. Instead, he/she lets readers deduce. Of all the methods of indirect description, the one used most frequently in Text A is quotation. The author quotes not only Sam Walton himself, but also his townsfolk and colleagues.
The text begins with an anecdote: how waiter Jamie Beaulieu had anticipated a lavish mansion at the Waltsons, only to find an ordinary-looking household. This kind of beginning lures readers to go on. There are other anecdotes, like how Sam Waltson forget his wallet and insisted on fetching it to pay the local barber, and how he lost 4 straight games after a Wal-Mart employee asked him a question about pricing.
Sam Walton is a folksy guy, of which a lot of examples are given. Examples of how generous an employer he is are also plentiful. Jamie Beaulieu’s anticipation and the reality he later found out form a contrast. It reveals Sam Walton’s down-home characteristics. When retired company president Ferold F. Arend compared Sam Walton with his previous employer, we appreciate further Sam Walton’s generosity.
Unit 3 The Generation Gap ■Theme:The generation gap ■ The Main Idea: Father meddled in children’s affairs with good intention, but only to find his efforts unwelcome. ■ Structure of the Text: three settings, three scenes ■Coverage: P66 Text A; P77 Points for Discussion; P80 Language Focus; P94 Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks; P95 Essay writing; P295 Model Paper
■Warming-up/leading-in, student-involving and thought-provoking questions: ●Is there a generation gap between you and your parents? ●What will you do if you have different opinions with your parents? ●What are the major components of a play?
Discussion 1.What do you think causes the generation gap? 2.What can be done to solve the problem of the generation gap?
Proverbs and Quotations • Like father, like son. 有其父，必有其子。 2. Spare the rod and spoil the child. 孩子不打不成器。 3. Train up a child in the way he should go. 培养孩子去走正路。
4. Mother’s darlings make but milksop heroes. 惯宝宝，不成器。 5. All I am, or can be, I owe to my angel mother. -- Abraham Lincoln, American president 我之所有，我之所能，都归功于我天使般的母亲。 -- 美国总统 A. 林肯
6. If you want your children to keep their feet on the ground, put some responsibility on their shoulders. -- John Bunyan, British essayist 你若希望你的孩子总是脚踏实地，就要让他们负些责任。 -- 英国散文家 J. 班扬 7. The fundamental defect of fathers is that they want their children to be a credit to them. -- Bertrand Russell, British philosopher 父亲们最根本的缺点在于想要自己的孩子为自己争光。 -- 英国哲学家 B. 罗素
Writing Practice Difference Between Speech And Writing Write a dialogue between Li Ping and Helen on the basis of the following passage. Li Ping is a Chinese student in the US. He is invited to a party for the first time. He does not know what he should talk about at a party. He asks his friend, Helen, for advice. Helen thinks that at a party people sometimes talk about sports, and current events. She believes that talking about China will be a good topic and people will like it. She also warns Li Ping not to ask about people’s income because it is too personal.
Li Ping: Helen, I’m going to a party tonight. But I’ve no idea what I should talk about. Can you give me some advice? • Helen: Sure. At a party people sometimes talk about sports, and current events. • Li Ping: I see. What else can I talk about? • Helen: You can talk about China. • Li Ping: That’s a good topic. • Helen: Yes. I’m sure they’ll like it. • Li Ping: Are there any questions I should avoid asking? • Helen: You shouldn’t ask questions about people’s income. • Li Ping: Why can’t I ask about their income? • Helen: Because it’s too personal. • Li Ping:I see. Thanks a lot, Helen. • Helen: Glad I can help.
Unit 4 The Virtual World ■Theme:The virtual life ■ The Main Idea: Despite the many negative effects of virtual life, the author prefers it to real life. ■ Structure of the Text: contrast between virtual life and real life ■Coverage: P101 Text A; P106 Points for Discussion; P110 Language Focus; P124 Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks; P124 Essay writing; P298 Model Paper
■Warming-up/leading-in, student-involving and thought-provoking questions: ●What are the antonyms of “virtual world” and “virtual life”? ●What are the synonyms for “virtual world”? ●What can people do on the Internet? ●What do you usually do on the Internet, and what websites do you usually log on?
Essay Writing Inductive generalization In developing a paragraph by means of the inductive generalization, the writer presents particular instances of a like kind and leads them into valid generalization which serves as his topic sentences. Thus, in the inductive pattern, the topic sentence is likely to appear late in the paragraph, often at the end. The result may be referred to as a periodic paragraph, which, like a periodic sentence, cannot be considered structurally complete at any point before the end.
Proverbs and Quotations • Lack of work brings a thousand diseases. 一闲生百病。 2. Time and tide wait for no man. 时光如流水，岁月不待人。 3. Don’t burn the candle at both ends. 蜡烛不可两头点。（即：不要过度操劳。） 4. People need to know one another to be at their honest best. --Bobbins Staca, British writer 人们需要相互了解才能达到最诚实的境界。 --英国作家 R. 斯达卡
Example As an early-morning pastime, Susie, my tortoise-colored kitten, would frequent the utility room, swing open the small metal door on the gas heater, and peer at the mechanism inside. During the daytime her favorite toy was not the usual ball of the yarn, but a small musical top. And late at night, when there was sometimes a gentle tapping in the study next to my bedroom, the cause proved the same: in the darkness a soft little paw was playing feline rhythms on the key of my typewriter. For a kitten, Susie had an unusual interest in mechanical things.
1. What is the conclusion? For a kitten, Susie had an unusual interest in mechanical things. 2. How does the author draw this conclusion? By three examples of the kitten’s interest. 3. Analyze Text A and explain how the author uses the technique of induction Open-ended.
5. When one loves one’s art no service seems too hard. --O. Henry, American novelist 一旦热爱自己的工作, 什么奉献也不难。 --美国小说家 欧.亨利 6.No matter how strong you are, how notable your attainments, you have enduring significance only in your relationship to others. --Ziegler Edward, American writer 不管你有多么强大, 你的成就多么辉煌, 只有保持你与他人之间的关系, 这一切才会有持久的意义 --美国作家 Z.爱德华
Unit 5 Overcoming Obstacles ■Theme:Overcoming obstacles ■ The Main Idea: Dreaming and hard work helped Michael Stone on his way to success. ■ Structure of the Text: narration with a flashback ■Coverage: P147 Text A; P153 Points for Discussion; P156 Language Focus; P172 Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks; P172 Essay writing; P301 Model Paper
■Warming-up/leading-in, student-involving and thought-provoking questions: Group Discussion A. Discuss in groups the obstacles that you have been faced with in your life. B. Discuss in groups the ways in which you overcame such difficulties. C. Discuss in groups the problems that you still have in overcoming these obstacles.
Brainstorming Imagine that you have received unlimited funds to start your own foundation. Brainstorm: 1. How would you like to start it? 2. Who would benefit from your foundation, and how? 3. What special programs would your foundation offer, and why?
Detailed questions for discussions in the text: Para 1-2 -- Use your own words to draw a picture of the stadium on that day, including the weather, Michael’s appearance and inner feeling, the audience’s response, etc. -- Use your own words to describe what kind of event the pole vault is. Para 3-5 -- From the description of Michael’s parents, what can you learn about his parents? -- Brainstorm the various obstacles Michael might face during the hard training. -- What individual characteristics should Michael’s success be attributed to?
Para 6-12 -- What’s Michael’s reaction before and after the bar? Para 13 -- Why does the author keep the secret about Michael’s blindness until the last sentence? -- Who would you admire better, a Michael Stone with a sound body or a blind Michael Stone?
Discussion 1. Work in pairs and find out those details about Michael Stone that show him to be his mother’s boy or his father’s son. 2. Discuss in groups: Dreaming and hard work, which is more important to a person’s success? Why?
Writing Skills As the text consists of the main story and a flashback, the narration has to switch from the ongoing competition to earlier events and then return to the ongoing competition. How does the author manage to make these parts in the text flow smoothly? 1.One way is to repeat a key word in the last sentence of a paragraph in the first sentence of the next paragraph, e.g. It also has the element of flying, and the thought of flying as high as a two-story building is a mere fantasy to anyone watching such an event. As long as Michael could remember he had always dreamed of flying.
2.Another way is to pick up a key idea from a previous paragraph and repeat it in the sentence introducing the next paragraph, e.g. All of Michael’s vaults today seemed to be the reward for his hard work.
Quotations 1. If you have great talents, industry will improve them; if you have but moderate abilities, industry will supply their deficiency. -- Joshuas Reynolds, American female essayist 如果你很有天赋，勤勉会使其更加完善；如果你能力一般，勤勉会补足其缺陷。 -- 美国女散文家 J.雷诺兹 2. It never will rain roses: when we want to have more roses we must plant more trees. -- G. Eliot, British novelist 天上不会掉下玫瑰来，如果想要更多的玫瑰，必须自己种植。 -- 英国小说家 G.艾略特
3.Genius only means hard-working all one’s life. -- Mendeleyev，Russian chemist 天才只意味着终身不懈的努力。 -- 俄国化学家 门捷列夫 4. Few things are impossible in themselves; and it is often for want of will, rather than of means, that man fails to succeed. -- La Rocheforcauld, French writer 事情很少有根本做不成的；其所以做不成，与其说是条件不够，不如说是决心不够。 -- 法国作家 罗切福考尔德
Essay Writing Describing a Person Some Useful Expressions A. Hair: • dark (grey, greying, blond, brown, carrot-red, red) hair • curly (wavy, straight) • thick (thin) hair • long (short, shoulder-length) hair • have a large bald patch • wear one's hair braided (辫成麻花状的) in long pigtails • tie one's hair back in a pony tail • wear one's hair in a tight bun (发髻) • hair hangs loose
B. Build: • skinny • be of average build • well-built • plump (肥胖的), heavy, obese (肥胖的) • dwarfish (比较矮小的) • be of average height • have hunched shoulders (驼背) • straight back