Geography studies spaces and behavior
Download
1 / 55

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 309 Views
  • Updated On :

Geography Studies Spaces and Behavior . How societies organize space and behavior How entities use land to produce goods and provide services and thus create landscapes The landscape comprises the tangible evidence of human activities carried out under the "rule of law " .

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - Jims


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Geography studies spaces and behavior l.jpg
Geography Studies Spaces and Behavior

  • How societies organize space and behavior

  • How entities use land to produce goods and provide services and thus create landscapes

  • The landscape comprises the tangible evidence of human activities carried out under the "rule of law"


Slide2 l.jpg


Slide4 l.jpg

  • Our human landscape is our unwitting autobiography, reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • (Peirce Lewis "Axioms for reading the landscape, some Guides to the American Scene" in Donald Meinig (ed) Interpretations of Ordinary Landscapes (New York, Oxford University Press, 1979 12)


The nature of government l.jpg

The Nature of Government reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

The Nature of Public Policy

The Nature of Law


Public policy l.jpg
Public Policy reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • The outcome of numerous debates about the role of government, commonly termed public policy or law,

  • prompted by the demands of individuals, corporations, and governments - usually about goods and services

  • debates involve governments, corporations, and individuals

  • The response of those same individuals, corporations, and governments to such public policy


Public policy operationalized l.jpg
Public Policy Operationalized reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • Public policy organizes behavior through a system of  incentives (carrots) and penalties (big sticks) that coerces individuals, organizations, and governments to behave  in particular ways

  • Defines, promotes, protects, and enforces acceptable behavior

  • Defines, promotes, protects, and enforces unacceptable behavior

  • Thus makes certain behavior more attractive/rational/profitable than another

  • Public policy provides a context for individuals, corporations, and governments making decisions about their behavior – for example how to use land

  • Public policy/Law organizes space over which certain entities have jurisdiction and the behavior of those who live and “do business” in that space


Federalism l.jpg
Federalism reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • The way individuals, organization and governments operate, under "the rule of law"

  • Incessant debate about the responsibilities and roles of the federal and state governments

  • Incessant debate about the authority and role of the various branches of federal and state governments

  • Incessant debate about what goods should be produced and what services should be provided

  • Incessant debate about how to produce goods and how to provide services

  • We “muddle through” – the outcome of the debate has varied temporally and spatially

  • Executive Order 13132 Federalism (Federal Register August 10, 1999)


There are several layers of government l.jpg
There are reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for themseveral “layers” of government

  • A federal government

  • 50 state governments

  • 87,453 units of local government

  • 39,044 are general purpose local governments

    • 3,043 county governments

    • 36,001 subcounty general purpose governments - municipalities, towns(hips)

  • 48,409 are special-purpose local governments

    • 13,726 school district governments

    • 34,683 special district governments


Public policy structure a 3 legged stool l.jpg
Public Policy Structure – a 3-legged Stool reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • The legislature defines and establishes broad social goals, outlines what behavior is needed to achieve those goals, delegates authority necessary to change behavior, appropriates revenue

  • The executive creates (promulgates) rules that are designed to implement legislation and change behavior

  • The judiciary examines claims by individuals, organizations, even governments, that specific legislation or specific regulation violates their constitutional rights and cause some harm


Public policy in minnesota l.jpg
Public Policy in Minnesota reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • The legislature enacts legislation, statutes, acts that

  • define and establish broad social goals

  • outline what behavior modifications are needed to achieve those goals

  • delegate authority necessary to control behavior – often change behavior

  • appropriate revenue

  • In accordance with the Minnesota Constitution

  • The Executive agencies translate legislation into rules of behavior

    • Department of Natural Resources

    • Department of Agriculture

    • Pollution Control Agency

    • Public Utilities Commission


Public policy in minnesota12 l.jpg
Public Policy in Minnesota reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • The Minnesota state courts and the federal district court of Minnesota examine claims by individuals, organizations, even governments, that specific legislation or specific regulation violates their state or federal constitutional rights and cause some harm that necessitates compensation


State policy on mercury contamination l.jpg
State Policy on Mercury Contamination reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • Minnesota Statutes 116.915

  • Minnesota Rules

  • Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

  • Minnesota Department of Health

  • Corporations: Taconite companies, Xcel Energy

  • Minnesota Chamber of Commerce

  • Lobbyists: Minnesota Center for Environmental Advocacy

  • Minnesota Public Interest Research Group, Izaak Walton League, Fresh Energy

  • Individuals

  • State’s mercury legislation and regulation

  • Status of mercury product legislation

  • Federal Actions

  • Management of Rechargeable Batteries Legislation

  • Environmental Protection Agency – mercury

  • Nine US States File Suit Challenging Federal Mercury Emissions Rules, Say Policy Does Not Protect Fetuses, Children


Minnesota policy on smoking l.jpg
Minnesota Policy on Smoking reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • Tobacco.org

  • Tobacco Control Archives (University of California San Francisco)

  • Minnesota's Tobacco Settlement 1998

  • (Google)


Minnesota policy on asbestos contamination l.jpg
Minnesota Policy on Asbestos Contamination reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • Mesothelioma (Wikipedia)

  • Minnesota Statues & Rules (MDH)

  • Asbestos (Environmental Protection Agency)

  • Asbestos (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)

  • Chrysotile Institute


The paradigm of public policy law l.jpg
The Paradigm of Public Policy/Law reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • Public Policy/Law comprises

  • Statutory law

  • Administrative law

  • Case law

  • Created by federal and state governments acting under authority defined, somewhat imperfectly, in a constitution

  • Federal Constitution (GPO)

  • Minnesota Constitution (MHS)


Debate about governments federal v state l.jpg
Debate about Governments: Federal v State reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • Nation versus State Government (Ben's Guide to Government)

  • Unfunded mandates (General Accountability Office)

  • Jurisdiction (The Constitution Society)


Pragmatically l.jpg
Pragmatically reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • Individuals, organization and governments operate in response to public policy/law created by federal and state governments acting under authority defined, somewhat imperfectly, in a constitution


Slide19 l.jpg

  • Multiplicity of Sources of Law reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • Statutory law (legislation, statute, act) enacted by the legislature

  • Administrative law (regulation, rule) promulgated by the executive agencies

  • Case law (opinion, decision, ruling) issued by a court (judge)

  • Federal, state, and local governments

  • Chronological Publications

  • Legislatures enacts statutes on variety of subjects in a legislative session

  • Regulatory agencies promulgate rules on a variety of subjects

  • Courts consider cases involving a variety of subjects


Finding aids subject access l.jpg
Finding aids - subject access reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • Official - published by the government authors of the material

  • Unofficial - published by a commercial publisher, usually contains the official material plus additional comments


Balancing act l.jpg
Balancing Act reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • Constant Change

  • Federal and state legislatures enact approximately 15,000 statutes/year

  • Unknown number of local government ordinances

  • Unknown number of rules - federal, states, local governments

  • Federal and state courts issue approximately 55,000 opinions/year - estimated 3 million opinions still "good law"

  • Desire to maintain certainty and stability - means by which society is ordered and the appropriate behavior of its members defined, promoted, and enforced

  • Need for flexibility in regulating a broad spectrum of human activities


Public policy structure a 3 legged stool22 l.jpg
Public Policy Structure – a 3-legged Stool reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • Legislative Branch enacts legislation, statutes, acts (laws)

  • defines and establishes broad social goals

  • outlines what behavior modifications are needed to achieve those goals

  • delegates authority necessary to change behavior

  • appropriates revenue

  • Executive Branch creates (promulgates) rules, regulations that are designed to implement legislation and change behavior

  • Judicial Branch examines claims by individuals, organizations, even governments, that specific legislation or specific regulation violates their constitutional rights

  • Cause some harm

  • Ask for a remedy


The role of the federal government l.jpg
The role of the federal government reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • The power given the federal government in the federal constitution

  • The power assumed by the federal government and not denied by the Supreme Court

  • Constant debate between the various branches of government about their respective roles and responsibilities

  • Constant debate between the federal and state governments about their respective roles and responsibilities


Basic references l.jpg

The US Government Manual reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them (National Archives)

Ben's Guide to the US Government (GPO)

The Federal Government (USA.gov)

GPO Access

Government Web Resources (Library of Congress)

FedStats

University of Minnesota Government Publications

University of Minnesota Law Library

Federal Resources (FindLaw)

Llrx.com

LexisNexis Congressional

LexisNexis Academic

Basic References


Legislative law l.jpg

Legislative Law reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them


Structure of the legislative branch l.jpg
Structure of the Legislative Branch reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • Senate

  • House of Representatives

  • Legislative Agencies & Commissions

  • Library of Congress

    • Congressional Research Service(University of Oregon)

    • Congressional Research Service Reports (National Council for Science & the Environment)

    • Legislative Sourcebook (Law Librarians Society of Washington)

  • General Accountability Office

  • Government Printing Office

  • Congressional Budget Office


Congressional committees l.jpg

Senate reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

House

Congressional Committees


Specific kinds of documents are produced at each stage of the legislative process l.jpg
Specific kinds of documents are produced at each stage of the legislative process

  • Introduced bills

  • Congressional Record

  • Committee Hearings

  • Committee Prints

  • Committee Reports

  • Congressional Record

  • How our laws are made


Outcome statute enacted by congress and signed into law by the president l.jpg
Outcome - Statute enacted by Congress and signed into law by the President

  • Every Session of Congress

  • Statutes-at-Large

  • Public and Private Laws - 108th Congress (GPO)

  • Popular Names of Acts (Cornell University)

  • LexisNexis Congressional


Legislation act statute l.jpg
Legislation, Act, Statute the President

  • Legislation enacted by the legislative branch and signed by the President

  • establishes national goals,

  • makes specific provisions,

  • delegates authority, and

  • appropriates funds

  • Presidential messages


United states code cumulates and codifies statutes enacted by congress l.jpg
United States Code the President – Cumulates and Codifies statutes enacted by Congress

  • Federal statutes currently in force are arranged by subject matter in fifty titles

  • Published by Government Printing Office it is recompiled every six years and is supplemented annually

  • The current  version of the USC began in 1926

  • Unofficial versions are produced by commercial publishers and are preferred

  • United States Code Annotated (Thomson Reuters)

  • United States Code Service (Reed Elsevier)

  • They are more current, and they have annotations; e.g., references to cases, law review articles, regulations authorized by the statutes, and books

  • All three sources of federal statutes have a subject index, a volume of tables for converting Statutes at Large citations to code citations, and a popular name listing


Congressional quarterly inc l.jpg

Congress and the Nation the President

vol. 1. 1945-1964

vol. 2. 1965-1968

vol. 3. 1969-1972

vol. 4. 1973-1976

vol. 5. 1977-1980

vol. 6. 1981-1984

vol. 7. 1985-1988

vol. 8. 1989-1992

vol. 9. 1993-1996

vol. 10.1997-2000

vol. 11. 2001-2004

CQ Weekly

CQ Researcher

CQ Almanac

CQ Almanac Plus

Congressional Quarterly Inc.


Administrative law l.jpg

Administrative Law the President


Administrative law structure l.jpg
Administrative Law - Structure the President

  • The US Government Manual (GPO)

  • Official US Executive Branch Web Sites (Library of Congress)

  • Federal Executive Branch (Usa.gov)

  • Executive Office of the President

  • Legal Information Institute (Cornell University)

  • Uncle Sam (Google)


Rule making l.jpg
Rule-Making the President

  • Part of the executive branch of the federal government possesses the authority given it in legislation

  • This part – executive agencies – create (promulgate) rules that are designed to implement legislation designed to achieve a particular goal (and influence behavior)

  • Executive departments comprising the Cabinet

  • Most Independent Agencies and Government Corporations

  • Some Boards, Commissions, and Committees



The outcome of the rulemaking process administrative law regulations l.jpg
The Outcome of the Rulemaking the President Process – Administrative Law/Regulations

  • Federal Register (GPO)

  • Federal Register (National Archives)

  • What is the Federal Register?

  • Code of Federal Regulations (GPO)

  • Regulations.gov

  • LexisNexis Congressional (Reed Elsevier)


Code of federal regulations cfr l.jpg
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) the President

  • The CFR is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register

  • Divided into 50 titles representing broad areas of behavior subject to federal regulation

  • Each title divided into chapters usually bearing the name of the issuing agency

  • Each chapter is further subdivided into parts covering specific regulatory areas - parts thus become the entity "a rule“

  • Large parts may be subdivided into subparts and all parts are organized in sections

  • Each part or section is keyed to

  • the legislative authority under which the agency promulgated the rule

  • the issue of the Federal Register in which the final rule was published

  • Rules are cited to the section level

  • Each volume of the CFR is revised once each calendar year



Slide42 l.jpg

Federal Land Management Agencies the President

Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Forest Service

Bureau of Land Management (BLM)

Fish & Wildlife Service

National Park Service

Army Corps of Engineers

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations (NOAA)

The Federal Reserve


Judicial law l.jpg

Judicial Law the President

The judiciary examines claims by individuals, organizations, even governments, that specific legislation or specific regulation violates their constitutional rights and cause some harm


Basic sources l.jpg
Basic Sources the President

  • Introduction to the U.S. Legal System (FindLaw)

  • Court Systems: Federal (FindLaw)

  • Lawsuits: A Practical Guide (FindLaw)


The judicial process l.jpg
The Judicial Process the President

  • The language of case law - judicial opinion - is very precise 

  • It is also filled with technical words that have specific meaning in the context of the judicial process

  • Case law changes as society changes

  • The earlier case law still has relevance however

  • The published findings of the courts

  • represents a dialogue between the past and the present

  • provide answers to some of society’s most compelling questions



United states supreme court l.jpg
United States Supreme Court the President

  • The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices

  • At its discretion, and within certain guidelines established by Congress, the Supreme Court each year hears a limited number of the cases it is asked to decide

  • Those cases may begin in the federal or state courts, and they usually involve important questions about the Constitution or federal law


United states district courts l.jpg
United States District Courts the President

  • The trial courts in which justices have jurisdiction to hear nearly all categories of federal cases, including both civil and criminal matters

  • Currently, there are 94 such districts, including at least one district in each state, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico

  • Three territories of the United States -- the Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands -- have federal district courts


United states courts of appeals l.jpg
United States Courts of Appeals the President

  • The federal judicial districts in each state are organized into 12 regional circuits each containing a United States court of appeals

  • These courts hears appeals from the district courts in its circuit and appeals from decisions of federal administrative agencies


Rules of the courts l.jpg
Rules of the Courts the President

  • Congress has authorized the federal judiciary to prescribe the rules of practice and procedures subject to Congressional oversight

  • Federal Rules (US Courts)

  • The courts have the authority to set additional rules

  • Local Rules of Court, United States District Courts

  • Local Rules of Court, United States Court of Appeals

  • Rules of the Supreme Court


Official versions printed and electronic l.jpg
Official versions - printed and electronic the President

  • The United States Supreme Court

  • 8th Circuit US Court of Appeals

  • US District Court, District of Minnesota

  • US Department of Justice


Unofficial sites l.jpg
Unofficial Sites the President

  • LexisNexis Academic  (Elsevier)

  • FindLaw (West Group)

  • Supreme Court Opinions (FindLaw)

  • Federal Law Materials - Judicial Decisions (Cornell University)


Slide55 l.jpg

  • Our human landscape is our unwitting autobiography, reflecting our tastes, or aspirations, and even our fears, in tangible, visible form.... All our cultural warts and blemishes are there, and our glories too; but above all, our ordinary day-to-day qualities are exhibited for anybody who wants to find them and knows how to look for them

  • (Peirce Lewis "Axioms for reading the landscape, some Guides to the American Scene" in Donald Meinig (ed) Interpretations of Ordinary Landscapes (New York, Oxford University Press, 1979 12)


ad