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Story by AM/CLH , Photo by ANWAR MIRZA, REUTERS NEWS PICTURE SERVICE . Recent Awareness of How Human Activities and Land-uses are Linked to Human Health and Disease Transmission among Humans and Animals. Hong Kong kills 8,300 chickens as bird flu found CHINA: February 3, 2003.

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Story by AM/CLH , Photo by ANWAR MIRZA, REUTERS NEWS PICTURE SERVICE

Recent Awareness of How Human Activities and Land-uses are Linked to Human Health and Disease Transmission among Humans and Animals

Hong Kong kills 8,300 chickens as bird flu foundCHINA: February 3, 2003

Ban on importing or exporting meat because of mad cow disease


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Stalking a Deadly Virus, Battling a Town's FearsBy SHARON LaFRANIERE and Denise Grady;April 17, 2005 – New York Times

Evelyn Hockstein/Polaris, for The New York Times

Health workers decontaminate body - died due to Marburg virus & wrapped it in a protective shroud.

Evelyn Hockstein/Polaris, for The New York Times

Soldiers in Uíge wore biohazard suits while burying two bodies even though dead not known to have Marburg virus.


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Vietnamese Boy Disabled by Agent Orange in a Ho Chi Minh City Hospital

VIETNAM : February 28, 2005

A Vietnamese boy disabled by Agent Orange gets the attention of a volunteer while sitting in his cot in a Ho Chi Minh City hospital, February 25, 2005.

“On Monday, a New York court will begin hearing a lawsuit brought by more than 100 Vietnamese seeking compensation and a clean-up of contaminated areas from more than 30 firms, among them Dow Chemical Co and Monsanto Co, the largest makers of Agent Orange. Agent Orange, named after the colour of its containers, is blamed for nightmarish birth defects in Vietnam where babies appeared with two heads or without eyes or arms.”

Story by Adrees Latif AL/CCK, Photo by ADREES LATIF, REUTERS NEWS PICTURE SERVICE


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Forests and Human Health City Hospital

  • Human Health links to Forests

  • Introduction – complex factors interlinked to disease

    3. Factors accelerating the spread of contagious diseases

  • Two Case Studies – show forest link to disease


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Leading causes of deaths (1997) City Hospital

Aids

Link between forests and source of disease? Insect vectors very adaptable to human social systems. Used to be adapted to forest environment and bred in tree holes but now discarded tires, drains, water cans


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1997 data City Hospital

FORESTS IMPORTANT?

egTuberculosis

Important in Forests, tropics

Deforestation causes insect vectors to move to cities


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Factors accelerating spread of contagious diseases: City HospitalGlobal Factors

  • High human population densities

  • Poor sanitary conditions - contact with water, food contaminated with human waste

  • Speed, frequency of modern travel

  • Use of excess chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, etc) against insect vectors, increase growth of food crops

  • Climate change, climatic events


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Forests and Human Health City Hospital

Introduction – complex factors interlinked to disease

Genetics – Environment –

Nutrition – Social – Political

factors - Resource uses


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Nutrition, Food Security, Poverty = Human Health City Hospital

  • Food security - inability to obtain sufficient food on a day-to-day basis

  • Higher incidence of infectious diseases when undernourished - can’t afford medicine or medicine not available

  • Poverty greatest threat to food security & human health


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  • A City Hospitalpoor environment will contribute to a poor diet and negatively affect nutrition

  • Poor nutrition may contribute to diseases & their emergence


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USDA Food City Hospital

Pyramid

High Health = Low SicknessEating a Balanced Diet


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BUT this is food in many parts of the world if you are fortunate

What nourishment exists from eating monkeys?Central Africa eat primates when antelopes are scarce.

In tropics, 50% of protein consumed by people from bushmeat & war stops agriculture so more dependent on bushmeat



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Forests and Human Health – problems?link is human behavior in landscape

Factors accelerating spread contagious diseases

  • Global factors – people, sanitary conditions, travel, chemical uses, climate change

  • Land use changes

  • Moving into or through interior, remote forest areas – close contact humans to wildlife

  • Wars- Hunting for bushmeat, selling animal parts for medicinal purposes


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Factors accelerating spread of contagious diseases: problems?Global Factors

- climate determines insect outbreaks (eg malaria, dengue fever)

  • Temperature = Insects sensitive to climate - affects timing, intensity of outbreaks (minimum air temp 15-18C needed for development of malaria parasite, threshold temps >20C set off epidemic) [what is average room temperature??]

  • Drought (combined with AIDS, poverty, war, bad governments, corruption) – extreme starvation > poor health > higher disease susceptibility


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CLIMATIC EVENTS problems?- climate determines insect outbreaks

  • Higher rainfall= more malaria outbreaks in world with more rain & increases in night time temperatures during El Nino

  • - El Nino 1987, malaria increased significantly in Rwanda- El Nino 1997/98 worst in history with torrential rains in East Africa – malaria epidemics in Uganda highlands


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Factors accelerating spread of contagious diseases: problems?Land Use Changes

  • Deforestation

  • Replace forests with crop farming, ranching and small animals

  • Which vegetation regrows after deforestation

  • Water bodies in disrupted areas

  • Road construction

  • Mining

WHY affect health?

- Creates supportive habitat for parasites & their vectors, increase spread disease organisms = (cattle, pigs, chickens serve as host for disease)


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Why extensive deforestation in tropics affect disease spread and its vectors?

  • Forests:

  • heavily shaded

  • not have free standing water (thick organic layers on ground) so few breeding ground for mosquitoes

  • Trees adapted to get rid of excess water

  • Cleared land:

  • more sunlight

  • prone to water puddles

  • crops (sugar cane, rice) use of irrigation ditches – good breeding habitats


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DEFORESTATION and its vectors?:

- most disruptive change affecting parasitic vector populations.Exposed ground becomes great breeding habitat for mosquitoes(e.g. increase in incidence of malaria)


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Malaysia and its vectors? – 50 year repeat growing of rubber had cyclic malaria epidemics

Trinidad – 1940s cut forests, trees came back with lots bromeliads in canopy (hold water and preferred breeding site of malaria mosquitoes).- Removal bromeliads, malaria prevalence decreased

Replacement of forests with rubber plantations or other vegetation


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Aechmea chantinii and its vectors?(Leinbach)

http://www.charlies-web.com/bromeliads-alphalist/tex365.html

Aechmea nidularioides

Frogs die and fertilize plants but also mosquitoes use as breeding ground


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ROADS and its vectors?

  • Road Construction into previouslyinaccessible forests:

  • Erosion, create ponds – breeding sites disease vectors

  • Roads allow construction workers, loggers, miners, tourists, conservationists to travel to new areas – expose new diseases (no immunity like forest dwellers); animals –exposed to new diseases


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Rice cultivation and its vectors?

BIODIESEL or

ETHANOL

http://www.delange.org/TucumePyramids/TucumePyramids.htm

http://www.webshots.com/explains/outdoors/indian-ocean.htmlBali`s rice fields...

published by nature4u2 in scenery & nature on 2001-07-31 last update on 2003-04-29

STANDING POOLS OF WATER – GREAT HABITAT FOR MOSQUITOES

Sugar cane

http://it.inmagine.com/agriculture-immagini-photos/pixtal-pt055


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Factors accelerating spread of contagious diseases: and its vectors?Moving into or through interior, remote forest areas – close contact humans to wildlife

- increase contact between wildlife and humans in interior forest areas (e.g. increase Ebola, AIDS)


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  • Forest dwellers immune but NOT OUTSIDERS and its vectors?

  • economic development (mining, timber, water for hydro electric plants, irrigation), legal/illegal trade, drugs moving people with no immunity into regions

  • Outsiders exposed to new diseases from contact with animals or changing land-uses

Interior, remote forest areas: forest dwellers no immunity to new diseases from outside regions


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  • Wars – factors accelerating spread disease and its vectors?

    • Decrease food security and people’s health in general which makes people more susceptible to diseases and premature death

    • Resettling people or people spontaneously migrating. Example Indonesia, resettling people from densely populated islands of Java and Bali to more sparsely populated and densely forested outer island where people not have immunity to malaria and where the plasmodium thrive in conditions created by the development project (Prothero 1999).

    • Most people who move are poorly educated and do not know how to protect themselves against malaria and other health risks (Prothero 1999)


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Humans are also dangerous to the Health of Forest Animals!! and its vectors?Human contact with animals makes animals sick!!!!


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Outbreaks of disease in chimpanzees, great apes of human origin:

Polio-like virus epidemic spread from a village; 15 chimpanzees severely crippled or died in 1960s, Tanzania

Polio like virus & flu like epidemic killed 11 chimpanzees in Democratic Republic of Congo, 2003

Great Apes - Documented outbreaks of scabies, intestinal parasites, yaws (syphilis-like), respiratory infections similar to measles from human contacts- Ebola has killed up to 90% of the apes in central Africa


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Outbreaks of disease in chimpanzees, great apes of human origin :

Illnesses in villages next to Park (% people with symptoms), Kibale National Park, Uganda:

Fever = 82%Coughing = 64%Respiratory distress = 26%Diarrhea = 24%Vomiting = 24%General Illness = 22%

TOURISTS and HUMANS

LIVING IN FORESTS ARE

NOT VERY HEALTHY!!


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International Gorilla Conservation Programme ask tourists: origin :

  • Keep minimum distance between tourists and gorillas at 5 to 7 m

  • Use facemasks reduce transmission airborne diseases

  • Prior to visit, tourists wash hands & disinfect feet

  • Construct adequate pit latrines so proper disposal human wastes

  • Refuse tourists entry if sick


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Two Case Studies – show forest link to disease origin :

  • Malaria, forests, environmental change and people (All 4 impact: climate change, land use change, people moving into remote forest areas, wars)

  • Acorns, white footed mouse/deer, ticks, bacteria, Lyme disease, forest fragmentation (impact: land use change – others less relevant)


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Malaria, forests, environmental change, people origin :

Malaria originated in Africa – fossils of mosquitoes 30 million years old; Plasmodium parasites highly specific - man only vertebrate host, Anopheles mosquitoes as vectors (parasite specificity - long, adaptive relationship with humans)

  • Commonly called “forest malaria”

  • Reasons where found – year round rainfall, temperatures where mosquitoes breed continuously

  • Forests fringes – most malarious where ecological conditions favor disease


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?? origin :

??

Malaria in 91 countries

The map indicates current distribution of indigenous malaria according to WHO http://www.wehi.edu.au/MalDB-www/intro.html

In 1990, 80% cases in Africa, remainder clustered in nine countries: India, Brazil, Afghanistan, Sri-Lanka, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia, China.

NOTE WHERE FOUND! ARE THERE NO MOSQUITOES IN THE NORTHERN LATITUDES (BOREAL FORESTS, TUNDRA)?


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Anopheles Mosquitos - origin :http://www.wehi.edu.au/MalDB-www/intro.html

  • TODAY Malaria endemic to tropics, with extensions into subtropics but 18th century North America had malaria in lowland forests but eradicated it

  • Malaria spread by travelers flying - cause death in non-malarious areas.


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Heliconia origin : – high abundance after agriculture abandonment in American tropics

Building Panama Canal, found linked to incidence of malaria since good mosquito breeding ground


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Use of DDT works as an insecticide to control but conflicts over other effects of DDT even though DDT only effective control of mosquitoes

Left, United Nations; Corbis


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Control measures over other effects of DDT even though DDT only effective control of mosquitoes:

spraying with DDT

coating marshes with paraffin

draining stagnant water

Preventive Measures:

Safest anti-malarial drug (chloroquine) no longer works as well since malaria parasite becoming immune


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The top photograph of a Unicef spraying with DDT in Paraguay was exhibited at the 1964-65 World's Fair

Unicef; Ian Berry/Magnum

Bottom picture, assault on mosquitos -- without DDT -- in Burundi in 2003

Unicef; Ian Berry/Magnum


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Lyme Disease was exhibited at the 1964-65 World's Fair

Acorns

White footed mouse/deer

Ticks

Bacteria

Forest fragmentation

- a case study not mainly in the tropics but found globally and significant in the temperate region (becoming big concern even in western US)

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Lyme Disease


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HUMANS and Lyme disease = was exhibited at the 1964-65 World's Fair

Fatigue

Sore joints

Heart damage

Arthritis

Memory loss

Center for Disease Control and Prevention = 17,730 cases Lyme disease in 2000; Disease found in 44 states, only 6 free from Lyme disease


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Animals, trees, people health all connected to Lyme disease was exhibited at the 1964-65 World's Fair

Deer and mice are hosts for bacteria

White Oak acorns http://www.bowsite.com/bowsite/features/armchair_biologist/acorns/acorns.html; http://www.bartelart.com/acorn.htm

White footed mouse http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/media/phil/pln1.jpg


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Acorn masting high every 2-5 years in oaks was exhibited at the 1964-65 World's Fair

Lots of Mice

FOOD

Gypsy Moth – an invasive introduced silk making in US, great mouse food

High food for mouse – increase their #s

http://lucas.osu.edu/gm/tufc.htm, White footed mouse http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/media/phil/peromyscus_leucopus_37.jpg


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More ticks with bacteria causing Lyme was exhibited at the 1964-65 World's Fair

#3

Ticks bite humans – Lyme disease

#2

More food = MORE MICE

Ticks have more animals to bite to get blood = # ticks increases

#1


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Allan et al. 2002 was exhibited at the 1964-65 World's Fair

3X more ticks

7X more infected ticks

Ticks

Small forest patch (< 3 acres)

Large forest patch > 3 acres


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WHY DOES FOREST SIZE AFFECT INCIDENCE OF LYME DISEASE? was exhibited at the 1964-65 World's Fair

White-footed mouse - at home in forest, field, your house

Loss of predators (foxes, weasels)

Loss of competitors (chipmunks, squirrels)

No controls on populations so increase esp. forest patch < 5 acres

http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefMedia.aspx?refid=461517523&artrefid=761565627&sec=-1&pn=1


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Conventional Subdivision was exhibited at the 1964-65 World's Fair

Both plans provide 36 home sites, Which better for ticks?

Conventional development strategy worst for ticks, Lyme disease when forest tract cut up into small pieces with lawnsBetter - cluster houses in large area of undeveloped forest

Cluster Housing (Open-Space Zoning)


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Future drivers of Deforestation was exhibited at the 1964-65 World's Fair

BIODIESEL or

ETHANOL

http://www.sefut.uni-freiburg.de/bilder/Nassreisanbau.pdf


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- was exhibited at the 1964-65 World's Fairmost disruptive change affecting parasitic vector populations.Exposed ground becomes great breeding habitat for mosquitoes(e.g. increase in incidence of malaria)

DEFORESTATION

- increase contact between wildlife and humans in interior forest areas (e.g. increase Ebola, AIDS)