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Chapter Twenty-Three Lecture One. Legends of Early Rome. Legends of Early Rome. Venus the mother of Aeneas, the ancestor of the Roman people But Mars also was a progenitor Through Romulus and Remus Presided over war, a constant companion of Rome. Legends of the Roman Monarchy.

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chapter twenty three lecture one

Chapter Twenty-ThreeLecture One

Legends of Early Rome

legends of early rome
Legends of Early Rome
  • Venus the mother of Aeneas, the ancestor of the Roman people
  • But Mars also was a progenitor
    • Through Romulus and Remus
    • Presided over war, a constant companion of Rome
romulus and remus
Romulus and Remus
  • Aeneas founds Lavinium (about 1200 BC)
  • Iulus, his son, founds Alba Longa
  • There follows a secession of kings
    • 450
  • Romulus and Remus found Rome (about 750 BC)
  • Recounted up by the historian Livy (Ab Urbe Condita)
romulus and remus5
Romulus and Remus
  • King Proca
    • Sons: Numitor and Amulius
  • Numitor, the heir, driven into exile by brother
  • Amulius kills all Numitor’s sons and forces his daughter, Rhea Silvia, to become a Vestal virgin
romulus and remus6
Romulus and Remus
  • Rhea Silva gives birth to twins by Mars, she said
  • She’s imprisoned and the boys thrown into the Tiber in a basket
  • Ficus Ruminalis
    • Romular
  • The she-wolf
  • Faustulus
romulus and remus7
Romulus and Remus
  • Original myth or consciously modeled after Greek myths
  • Has many Latin words in the story
  • But like other abandoned heroes and twins in Greek and other earlier myths
    • Mother imprisoned like Danaë
    • Conflicts between brothers etc.
romulus and remus8
Romulus and Remus
  • Twins grow up hunting, as per usual
  • Remus captured as a bandit and brought to Numitor
  • The two unite and kill Amulius
  • The two found different towns
  • Later they quarrel and Romulus kills Remus
    • Hence the settlement is called “Rome”
rape of the sabine women10
Rape of the Sabine Women
  • Women of nearby city of the Sabines kidnapped at a festival at Rome
  • They are mollified by assurances that they will be treated as respectable wives
  • Perhaps a reflection of historical reality of exchange of women?
titus tatius tarpeia the death of romulus12
Titus Tatius, Tarpeia, the Death of Romulus
  • King of the Sabines, Titus Tatius, attacks Rome
  • Rome nearly betrayed by Tarpeia
    • Later, the Tarpeian Rock
  • The Sabine women stop the final battle
  • Romulus “disappears” in a storm
becoming a god at rome14
Becoming a God at Rome
  • Apotheosis of Romulus sets pattern for the cult of Roman emperors later
    • So also do the myths of Hercules and the Dioscuri
  • E.g., Caesar and Augustus, like other heroes, were descended from a god, Venus
  • Became “divine” after a vote of the Senate
becoming a god at rome15
Becoming a God at Rome
  • Less power than an Olympian
  • Before he died and was declared divine, his “cult” was to his genius
    • numen that dwelled in him
  • Became more common and brazen after Caesar and Augustus
    • Not all were deified
becoming a god at rome16
Becoming a God at Rome
  • The imperial cult provided political stability and unity
  • Refusal to participate was considered treasonous
    • Early Christians and some Jews opposed all aspects of it
horatii and the curatii18
Horatii and the Curatii
  • Rome founded in 753 B.C.
  • Four Romano-Sabine kings
  • Three Etruscan kings
  • The combat between the three Horatii (Roman) and the three Curatii (Alba Longa)
    • The surviving Horatius kills his own sister for grieving the loss of her fiancé Curatius and is acquitted