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CHAMELEON - A System for Adaptive QoS Provisioning Rajesh Krishna Balan Internet has proliferated rapidly Date Hosts 12/69 4 12/79 188 01/89 80,000 07/95 6,642,000 07/95 8,200,000 07/96 16,729,000 07/97 26,053,000

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slide2

Internet has proliferated rapidly

Date Hosts

12/69 4

12/79 18801/89 80,000

07/95 6,642,000

07/95 8,200,000

07/96 16,729,000

07/97 26,053,000

07/98 36,739,000

07/99 56,218,000

07/00 80,000,000

(projection)

slide3

Strong Interest in carrying Voice traffic over the

  • Internet- 250 billion conversation minutes by 2005
  • Internet is designed for non-real time data communications - Assuring QoS is a problem.
slide4

Tele-X

Tele-X

Why there is no such problem in POTS?

Trunk lines

  • Statistical guarantees are provided
slide5

Voice

Flow

VoIP

Gateway

VoIP

Gateway

Internet

slide6

Technical challenges

  • Lack of guarantees in terms of BW, packet loss,
  • delay and jitter - Quality of Voice over Internet suffers. IP is only best effort!!
  • QoS guarantees are primarily provided by two mechanisms:
    • RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol)
    • Priority Queue Mechanism
  • DiffServ framework initiative under IETF and
  • QBone initiative under Internet2 or Next Generation Internet hold promise.
objectives
Objectives
  • To search for and acquire various hardware and / or software tools which can generate application specific traffic which follow TCP dynamics.
  • To verify and evaluate the properties and capabilities of TCP tunnels.
  • To develop a complete system which uses TCP tunnels to provide QoS for various classes of traffic. This system should also be adaptive and thus be able to adjust itself to the traffic conditions on the network.
  • To develop a mechanism by which the system can be used as an efficient yet reliable link layer protocol for transmitting TCP data over lossy links.
slide8

TCP-Trunking Testbed Setup

(Centre For Internet Research)

Internet

Earth-1

Earth-2

Jupiter-1

10.10.1.1

10.10.2.1

10.10.2.2

Compaq Intel

Compaq Intel

Compaq Intel

Mercury

Earth

Jupiter-2

Trunking Gateway

ananda-r9

Jupiter

10.10.3.1

Linux

Linux

137.132.89.91

Compaq Intel

Intel EtherExpress Pro 100B (Org)

Delay / Drop Box

Compaq Intel

Pluto-2

Linux

10.10.1.254

Intel OEM

Saturn-1

10.10.3.2

Compaq Intel

Pluto-1

Neptune

10.10.0.254

Pluto

Uranus-2

10.10.5.2

Intel OEM

10.10.5.4

Linux

Traffic Aggregator

Saturn

Compaq Intel

Intel OEM

Linux

Saturn-2

Trunking Gateway

Linux

10.10.4.1

Compaq Intel

Uranus-1

10.10.5.3

Krypton-1

Compaq Intel

10.10.4.254

Intel OEM

10.10.5.3

Venus

Mars

Linux

10.10.0.3

10.10.0.4

Compaq Intel

Linux

Linux

Krypton-2

Intel EtherExpress Pro 100B (Org)

10.10.5.254

Intel OEM

Intel OEM

Krypton

Rajesh & Boon Peng

Traffic Aggregator

3rd September 1999

Linux

Revised on 19th July 2000

10.10.0.2

Uranus

traffic generators
Traffic Generators
  • Need for Realistic Traffic Generators
  • Mathematical Models (Poisson, Erlang, Exponential etc.)
  • Trace-based Models (collect usage statistics / data and replay etc.)
  • Ad-Hoc Models (models with no realistic component. E.g. models which just generate packets and send them out as fast as possible etc.)
hardware traffic generators
Hardware Traffic Generators
  • Very expensive ( > $70,000 for a full system)
  • Used for stress testing production networks
  • Generally unable to generate application level traffic (telnet, HTTP etc.) which follow TCP dynamics (re-transmissions, window size negotiations etc.)
slide13

TCP tunnel encapsulationmechanisms

traffic management

outgoing encapsulated packet

admission control

incoming

packet

Subsystem 1

Subsystem 2

TCP tunnel

TCP trunk

TCP tunnel

TCP trunk decapsulationmechanisms

incoming

encapsulated packet

original data packets sent to destination via normal routing

Subsystem 3

Principle of TCP Tunnels

  • TCP tunnels are virtual circuits through which all
  • traffic belonging to a class of application are aggregated.
  • A single aggregated flow in a tunnel can be managed better
  • than individual flows across a congested link.
slide14

TCP trunk encapsulationmechanisms

traffic management

outgoing encapsulated packet

admission control

incoming

packet

Subsystem 1

Subsystem 2

TCP trunk

TCP trunk decapsulationmechanisms

incoming

encapsulated packet

original data packets sent to destination via normal routing

Subsystem 3

Principle of TCP Tunnels (cont)

  • Provides statistical guarantees to classes of traffic (eg., voice
  • traffic should get at least 5% of the BW; Video traffic should
  • get at least 10% of the BW, but no more than 20%).
  • Guarantees can be assured because of the traffic
  • distribution pattern (eg., all flows do not peak at the same time)
  • Aggregation of traffic
  • Reliable link level protocol
  • Protection of flows
  • Congestion handling is moved from core to edge of the network
back pressure effect of tcp tunnels

Limit=1000

Tunnel Router

Max=96

Core Router

Instantaneous Queue occupancies for core and tunnel routers using TCP tunnels

Back Pressure Effect of TCP Tunnels
the chameleon
The Chameleon
  • A complete solution that can help in the design of Voice over IP Gateways with QoS guarantees.
  • Traffic -Modeling of VoIP.
  • Research and development at the network protocol layer (TCP/IP etc.).
  • Started in co-operation with Harvard University.
chameleon

Tele-X

Tele-X

Chameleon

Border Router

Border Router

Encapsulated aggregated data in the TCP tunnels

End Machines

End Machines

Aggregation of Incoming Data into TCP Tunnels by Chameleon

INTERNET

Chameleon

Designed to support multiple classes of traffic over the Internet with explicit minimum statistical guarantees.

chameleon implementation
Chameleon Implementation
  • QoS routines are compiled into the Linux kernel to enable the various QoS providing buffer and scheduling mechanisms (like RED, CBQ etc.) in the Linux kernel.
  • User level program, TC used to activate the various buffer and scheduling mechanisms. This requires different parameters to be passed into the program TC.
slide19

outgoing encapsulated packet

Remove packets from list and place into TCP tunnels after adding length of packet in front of packet

Place packet into linked list

User space

libpcap

Kernel space

incoming

packet

Firewall

TCP tunnels

1) Read length of pack

2) Read packet

1) Read IP destination of packet

2) Write packet into raw socket.

User space

Kernel space

incoming

encapsulated packet

Packet sent to TCP tunnel receiver as that is the destination address for TCP tunnel packets

original data packets sent to destination via normal routing

Data Flow Diagram of TCP Tunnel Software

Chameleon Implementation (2)

deployment

Border Router

Running Chameleon

Border Router

Running Chameleon

INTERNET

INTERNET

LANs

LANs

LANs

LANs

Commodity Linux Machine running Chameleon

Border Router

Border Router

Commodity Linux Machine running Chameleon

Deployment
experimental setup

Virtual TCP tunnels between the 2 border routers

Border Router

Delay/Error Box

Border Router

End Machines

End Machines

Logical setup of Experimental Testbed

Experimental Setup
results tcp bulk traffic

1

2

2

1

Results - TCP Bulk Traffic

Shows effectiveness in protecting TCP bulk traffic

One 2Mbps UDP CBR stream

One 2Mbps UDP exponential on/off stream

Ten TTCP bulk transfer

results web traffic
Results - Web Traffic
  • Jitter is less
  • Substantial improvement in
  • End-to-end response time
  • Traffic Mix
  • 100 web sources
  • 2 video streams
results udp packet loss
Results - UDP Packet Loss
  • Traffic Mix
  • 10 TCP bulk sources
  • 2 video stream
  • Packet loss is less
results adaptive nature

4

1

2

3

4

1

3

2

Results - Adaptive Nature
  • Traffic Mix
  • 10 TCP bulk sources
  • 2 UDP streams
reliable data link layer
Reliable Data Link Layer
  • Lossy / Wireless links are becoming increasingly common in todays networks
  • However, TCP performs poorly in cases where packets are lost due to corruption
  • Chameleon can be used to “isolate” the lossy links from the rest of the network
  • Versions of TCP optimised for lossy environments, like TCP HACK, can be used by the Chameleon
reliable data link layer 2

Virtual TCP tunnels between the 2 border routers

Border Router

Delay/Error Box

Border Router

Lossy Link being simulated by Delay/Error Box

End Machines

End Machines

Logical Setup of Experimental Testbed for lossy link experiments

Reliable Data Link Layer (2)
reliable data link layer results

1

2

3

4

Throughput of Chameleon versus percentage packet loss for short latency (10 ms) link with random single packet errors

2

1

3

4

Reliable Data Link Layer - Results
reliable data link layer results 2

Throughput of Chameleon versus percentage packet loss for long latency (300 ms) link with random single packet errors

1

2

3

4

3

1

4

2

Reliable Data Link Layer - Results (2)
future work
Future Work
  • Port Chameleon fully into kernel space
  • Test Chameleon in different network conditions
  • Optimise Chameleon for UDP traffic
  • Optimise Chameleon as a VoIP gateway
  • More work needs to be done on the use of the Chameleon as a reliable data link layer
  • Fully automate the Chameleon
summary
Summary
  • Chameleon enables the provisioning of QoS for various classes of traffic in an easy yet effective manner
  • No modifications to existing protocols and applications and is totally transparent to the end users
  • The Chameleon is also adaptive and reacts seamlessly to changes in network bandwidth. It will strive to satisfy all statistical QoS contracts
    • Applicable not only to voice, but other multimedia traffic as well.
  • Expertise in traffic generation and analysis:
    • Poisson - telnet; Heavy-tail (Pareto) - web traffic; exponential on-off - voice
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • A/P A. L. Ananda
  • Mr. Lee Boon Peng
  • TCP Trunk Project Group
    • Dr. Lillykutty Jacob
    • Dr Winston Seah Khoon Guan
    • Renjish Kumar
    • Liu Yong Xiang
    • Chan Lee Lee
    • Yeo Ann Kian