PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Behavior Theory' - Jims
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Skinner championed radical behaviorism, which places primary emphasis on the effects of environment on behavior. Skinner was also a determinist; he did not believe that humans had free choice. He acknowledged that feelings and thoughts exist, but he denied that they CAUSED our actions. Instead he stresses the cause and effect links between objective, observable environmental conditions and behavior. Environmental factors can be directly observed and changed. In 197 Skinner wrote a book “Beyond Freedom and Dignity”.
Operant Conditioning-most of the significant responses we make in everyday life. Examples are reading, writing, driving a car and eating with utensils. Positive and negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction techniques, illustrates how operant conditioning in applied settings can be instrumental in developing prosocial and adaptive behaviors.
Social learning theory is interact ional, interdisciplinary and multimodal. It involves a triadic reciprocal interaction among the environment, personal factors (beliefs, preferences, expectations, self-perception and so forth), and individual behavior. A basic assumption is that people are capable of self-directed behavior change.
Cognitive behavior Therapy-this approach offers various action-oriented methods to help people change what they are doing and thinking.
Behavior therapy are based on the principles and procedures of the scientific method. Experimentally derived principles of learning are systematically applied to help people change their maladaptive behavior
Behavior therapy deals with the clients current problems and the factors influencing them as opposed to an analysis of possible historical determinants. At times understanding of the past may offer useful info. About the environmental events related to present behavior
Clients involved in behavior therapy are expected to assume an active role by engaging in specific actions to deal with their problems. Rather than simply talking about their condition they are required to DO something to bring about change. Behavior therapy is an action-oriented approach, & learning is viewed as being at the core of therapy. Although referred to as “therapy” this is an education approach in which clients participate in a teaching-learning process.
The Behavioral approach emphasizes teaching clients skills of self-management with the expectation that they will be responsible for transferring what they learn in the therapist’s office to their everyday lives. Behavior therapy is generally carried in the clients natural environment as much as possible.
The focuses is on assessing overt and covert behavior directly, identifying the problem, and evaluating change. Therapists also assess their clients culture as part of their social environments, including social support networks relating to target behavior.
Behavior therapy emphasizes a self-control approach in which clients learn self-management strategies. Therapists frequently train clients to initiate, conduct, and evaluate their own therapy. Clients are empowered through this process of being responsible for their changes.
Behavioral treatment interventions are individually tailored to specific problems experience by clients. “What treatment, by whom, is the most effective for this individual with that specific problem and under which set of circumstances?
The practice of behavior therapy is based on a collaborative partnership between therapist and clients and every attempt as made to inform clients about the nature and course of treatment
The emphasis is on practical applications. Interventions are applied to all facets of daily life in which maladaptive behaviors are to be increased
Therapists strive to develop culture specific procedures and obtain their clients adherence and cooperation
The first step is to conduct a functional assessment using both indirect and direct observation, and information about antecedent events, including the time and place of the behavior and the people present when the behavior occurs
The therapist develops hypotheses about the nature of the problem behavior and the condition contributing to this behavior
Hypothesized to be maintaining the problem behaviors
Negative punishment procedures may be used to decrease problem
After treatment methods have been used it’s very important to develop strategies to maintain behaviors
Clients are to imagine successively more anxiety arousing situations at the same time that they engage in a behavior that competes with anxiety
Gradually clients become less sensitive to the anxiety arousing situations
The therapist conducts an initial interview to identify specific information about the anxiety and to gather relevant background information about the client
Background information gives the therapist a good understanding of the client
Find out under what circumstances does the clients have anxiety
Therapist conducts a relaxation training before going to therapy,
Conducts anxiety hierarchy which stimuli that elicit anxiety in a particular situation such as rejection, jealousy, criticism, disapproval, or any phobia
Desensitization begins after several sessions, client reaches complete relaxation with eyes closed, then imagine the least anxiety arousing scene, therapist moves progressivly up the hierarchy until the client signals anxiety, relaxation is introduced again until little anxiety is experienced
EMDR is a form of exposure therapy that involves imaginable flooding, cognitive restructuring, and the use of rapid, rhythmic eye movement and other bilateral stimulation to treat clients who have experienced traumatic stress
EMDR is applied to many populations that deal with posttraumatic stress disorders, sexual abuse victims, combat veterans, victims of crime, rape survivors, accident victims, children, couples
It also deals with individuals that have anxiety, panic, depression, grief, addictions and phobias
The client is instructed to visually track the therapist’s index finger as they move it back and forth 12 to 24 times
Client is instructed to block out negative experience momentarily and breathe deep and to report what he/she is imagining, feeling and thinking
Client is asked the positive cognition and identify and body tension
Useful for people who can’t express anger or irritation, difficult to say no, people who are overly polite and allows others to take advantage of them, people who find it difficult to express affection and other positive responses, people who feel they have no right to express their thought beliefs, and feelings and people who have social phobias
The assumption underlying assertion training is so clients can have the right to express themselves
A goal in assertion training is to teach clients to express themselves in ways that reflect sensitivity to the feelings and rights of others
Clients have the CHOICEof whether to behave assertively in certain situations
Assertion does not mean aggression, assertive clients don’t stand up for their rights at all cost, ignoring the feelings of others
Therapist are very active during therapy sessions, educators, consultants, and role models
Therapist provide information, instructions and feedback as well as modeling assertive behaviors, challenging self defeating beliefs, offering constructive criticism and suggestions, offering positive reinforcement and being appropriately self-disclosing
Therapists need to make choices regarding different styles of relating to clients
Over the years has been learning to blend appropriate and effective techniques with the most suitable relationship style