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Aquatic Macroinvertebrates. And their role in Biomonitoring. Aquatic Macroinvertebrates and Biomonitoring. Introduction/definitions Types/Uses of biomonitoring +/- of using macroinvertebrates History Focus on EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols Iowa’s Biological Assessment Program.

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aquatic macroinvertebrates

Aquatic Macroinvertebrates

And their role in Biomonitoring

aquatic macroinvertebrates and biomonitoring
Aquatic Macroinvertebrates and Biomonitoring
  • Introduction/definitions
  • Types/Uses of biomonitoring
  • +/- of using macroinvertebrates
  • History
  • Focus on
    • EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols
    • Iowa’s Biological Assessment Program
slide3
Introduction:

Biomonitoring- an evaluation of the condition of a water body using biological surveys and other direct measurements of the resident biota in surface waters.

Benthic macroinvertebrates- organisms that inhabit bottom substrates for at least part of their life cycle and are retained by a 200µm to 500µm mesh.

slide4
Introduction (cont’d):

Metric- quantifiable attribute of aquatic community that is ecologically relevant and responds predictably along a disturbance gradient

Biocriteria- numerical measurements or narrative expressions that describe the reference biological condition of aquatic communities inhabiting waters of a given designated aquatic life use (EPA 1996)

types of biomonitoring studies
Organism level

Biochemical

Physiological

Morphological

Behavioral

Life History

Bioaccumulation

Population

Biotic Indices

Multivariate analysis

Types of Biomonitoring Studies
types of biomonitoring studies ctd
Community Level

Taxa richness

Enumeration

Diversity Indices

Similarity Indices

Biotic Indices

FFG measures

Combinations

Ecosystem Level

Structure of food webs

Productivity

Decomposition

Chemical cycling

Types of Biomonitoring Studies (ctd)
benthic macroinvertebrate biotic index uses
Benthic Macroinvertebrate Biotic Index Uses
  • Type 1 – Surveillance
    • Surveys before & after; determine effects of project or action
      • Project built
      • Toxicant released
  • Type 2- Compliance
    • Regular sampling or toxicity testing to assure compliance with mandated standards
      • Test effluents
      • Ensure water meets water quality standards
advantages of bmis
Advantages of BMIs
  • Ubiquitous (all habitats)
  • Large # of species (allow wide spectrum of responses)
  • Sedentary (allows spatial analysis)
  • Life cycle long enough (to see temporal changes)
  • Sampling/analysis relatively inexpensive
  • Taxonomy of many groups well known (keys)
  • Methods of data analysis (biotic/diversity indices)
  • Responses of common species known
disadvantages of bmis
Disadvantages of BMIs
  • Response to some stressors inadequate
  • Natural conditions, current & substrate affect distribution and abundance
  • Seasonal variations in diversity & abundance create problems (data comparison)
  • Sample processing & ID can be costly and time consuming
history
History
  • Europe
    • 1st indicator organisms Kolkwitz & Marsonn 1908
    • Saprobity – organic pollution reduces DO and restricts taxa
    • Lake classification systems Thienemann 1925 benthos – oligotrophic/eutrophic
history cont d
History (cont’d)
  • Europe (cont’d)
    • Diversity indices developed (1950-1980)
    • “Score systems” – indicator concepts with diversity (1980s)
      • BMWP- binary system, family level

(Siphlonuridae=10, Chironomidae=2)

Sum of scores of individual families gives site score

slide13

EPT Tolerance Values

Family (Species range)

Ephemerellidae

1 (0-2)

Taeniopterygidae

2 (2-3)

Rhyacophilidae

0 (0-1)

Leptophlebiidae

2 (1-6)

Brachycentridae

1 (0-2)

Capniidae

1 (1-3)

Isonychiidae

2 (2-2)

Limnephilidae

Baetiscidae

3

Leuctridae

0 (0-0)

4 (0-4)

Heptageniidae

4 (0-7)

Hydropsychidae

Perlidae

1 (0-4)

4 (0-6)

Caenidae

7 (3-7)

slide14

Other taxa tolerance values, Family (species)

Elmidae

4 (2-6)

Corydalidae

0 (4)

Psephenidae

4 (4-5)

Gomphidae

1 (1-5)

Tipulidae

3 (2-7)

Aeshnidae

3 (2-6)

Chironomidae

Tanypodinae (4-10)

Podonominae (1-8)

Calopterygidae

5 (5-6)

Simulidae

6 (1-7)

From: Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Freshwaters-

Taxa Tolerance Values, Metric and Protocols (Mandaville 2002)

history1
History
  • North America little acceptance for these ideas
    • European indicator species not applicable
    • NA’s problems were toxic not organics
    • NA biologists were skeptical of indicator species concept
history2
History
  • North America
    • S.A. Forbes 1870s benthic fauna indicator species
    • Ruth Patrick 1948 community indicator groups Eastern stream surveys of diatoms
    • MacArthur & Wilson 1967 dynamic community concept, continual local immigration & extinction
    • Equilibrium and diversity indices 1970s
    • Hurbert 1971 questioned the relationship between diversity and system stability
history3
History
  • N. America (cont’d)
    • Energetics, RCC, Vannote 1980
    • Development of Ecoregion concept 1987
    • Reference site idea Karr 1986
    • Ohio EPA 1987 Invertebrate Community Index
    • Karr 1986 Index of Biotic Integrity
    • EPA Rapid Assessment Protocols
invertebrate community index ici ohio epa 1987
Sum of 10 measures

Ohio 232 reference sites over 5 ecoregions

Scored according to drainage area

# of taxa (species)

# of Ephemeroptera

# of Trichoptera

# of Diptera

% of Ephemeroptera

% of Trichoptera

% of Chironomidae (Tanytarsini)

% of other dips & non-insects

% of tolerant organisms (list)

# of EPT taxa

Invertebrate Community Index (ICI) Ohio EPA 1987
j r karr
J.R. Karr
  • First developed biotic index for fish
  • Became multi-metric index
  • IBIs are now used world-wide
  • Must be regionally calibrated with reference sites
  • He is currently developing an IBI for terrestrial habitats
  • ISU alumni, BS Fish & Wildlife Biology
slide24

Biological Integrity

  • “the capability of supporting and maintaining a balanced, integrated, adaptive community of organisms having a composition, diversity and functional organization comparable to that of natural habitats of the region”

(Karr and Dudley 1981)

slide25

The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is useful because…

  • It is an ensemble of biological information
  • It objectively defines benchmark conditions
  • It can assess change due to human causes
  • It uses standardized methods
  • It scores sites numerically, describes narratively
  • It defines multiple condition classes
  • It has a strong theoretical basis
  • It does not require fine resolution of taxa

(Karr, ISU seminar)

epa rapid assessment protocols
EPA Rapid Assessment Protocols
  • Cost effective, rapid, understandable, benign
  • Integrated assessment of habitat, water quality and biological measures (periphyton, macroinvertebrates, fish) with defined reference conditions
  • Developed standard sampling, data analysis and reporting protocols
  • Use as a tool for states
iowa s biological assessment program
Iowa’s Biological Assessment Program
  • Initial Phase
  • Protocols
  • Assessment
slide28

Why Biological Assessment?Iowa’s Reasons

  • Accurate and cost-effective
  • Federal Clean Water Act goals and requirements
  • Inventory biological resources
slide29

Biological Assessment

An evaluation of the biological condition of a stream using information obtained by sampling the resident aquatic community.

Three-step process:

1. Sample aquatic organisms

2. Summarize data using biological indices

3. Compare to reference streams

iowa bm sampling protocol
Iowa BM Sampling Protocol
  • July 15-Oct 15
  • Stream flow near base flow levels
  • Benthic habitat inventory
  • Stream reach 150-350 m (2 riffle/pool, 2 bends)
slide31

IA Benthic Macroinvertebrate Sampling

Standard-Habitat Samples

Semi-quantitative

3x Rock or wood in flowing water (Hess or Surber sampler)

Or 3x Multi-plate artificial substrates (4-6 week colonization)

slide32

IA Benthic Macroinvertebrate Sampling

Multi-Habitat Samples

  • Qualitative Data
    • 3x Multi-habitat (hand-picking from all available habitats, 1.5 hours, target 150 organisms)
slide36

Stream Benthic Macroinvertebrates:

Standard-Habitat Samples, ‘94-’98

slide37

Aquatic Life Use Attainment Determined from ‘94-’98 Biological Assessments (149 Stream Sites)