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Animal Welfare Older Adults: Assessment of Elder Abuse Neglect PowerPoint Presentation
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Animal Welfare Older Adults: Assessment of Elder Abuse Neglect

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    Slide 1:Animal Welfare & Older Adults: Assessment of Elder Abuse & Neglect Terry Peak, M.S.W., Ph.D. Frank R. Ascione, Ph.D. Director, Social Work Program Professor of Psychology Utah State University Utah State University

    SAMPLE SCREENING INSTRUMENT S1. SCREEN S1.1 Do you have any pets? (Yes No) if NO S1.1.1 Would you like to have a pet? (Yes No) If Yes, reasons for wanting a pet_____ (SEE E1.1) If No, reasons for not wanting a pet_____ S1.1.1.1 As an adult, when did you last have a pet in your home? (Never, age when last had pet) -- if owned pet previously, what happened to pet?_____ if YES S1.1.2 How many pets do you have? (list number) S1.1.3 What kind of pet(s) do you have? (list types) S1.1.4 What is the main reason that you have a pet? (e.g., part of the family/companion, protection, assistance animal, human partner wants it, etc.) S2.1 Are you worried about the health and welfare of your pet? (Yes No) if Yes, describe your worries_____ S2.2 Are you worried about being able to control your pets behavior? (Yes No) if Yes, describe your worries_____ S2.3 Has anyone ever threatened to hurt your pet? (Yes No) S2.4 Has anyone actually hurt your pet? (Yes No) S2.5 Have you ever hurt your pet? (Yes No) S2.6 Do you think your pet is healthy and well cared for? (Yes No) (if NO, describe your concerns_____) S2.7 (Rating by interviewer/investigator) [DOES THE PET APPEAR TO BE HEALTHY AND WELL CARED FOR?] (Yes No) (if NO, describe your concerns_____) Ascione, F. R. (2000). Safe havens for pets: Guidelines for programs sheltering pets for women who are battered. Logan, UT: Author. Ascione, F. R. (2005). Children and animals: Exploring the roots of kindness and cruelty. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. Ascione, F. R. (Ed.) (2007, in press). International handbook of theory, research, and application on animal abuse and cruelty. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. Ascione, F. R., Weber, C. V., Thompson, T. M., Heathy, J., Maruyama, M., and Hayashi, K. (2007). Battered pets and domestic violence: Animal abuse reported by women experiencing intimate partner violence and by non-abused women. Violence against Women, 18, in press. Ascione, F. R., Weber, C., and Wood, D. (1997). The abuse of animals and domestic violence: A national survey of shelters for women who are battered. Society and Animals, 5, 205-218. Cook-Daniels, L. (1999). The connection between animals and elder abuse. Victimization of the Elderly and Disabled, 2, 37, 46-47. Raymond, J. A. (2003). Creating safer communities for older adults and companion animals. Madison, WI: Department of Health and Family Services (Publication Number PDE-3181). Rosen, B. (1995). Watch for pet abuse it might save your clients life. Shepards ElderCare/Law Newsletter, 5, 1-9. Teaster, P. B., Dugar, T. A., Mendiondo, M. S., Abner, E. L., Cecil, K. A., and Otto, J. M. (2006). The 2004 survey of state Adult Protective Services: Abuse of adults 60 years of age and older. Washington, D.C.: Administration on Aging, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Utah Division of Aging and Adult Services Directors (which includes Adult Protective Services) have been very supportive of this assessment endeavor. Ascione and Peak developed a draft assessment protocol (Elder Abuse/Neglect and Animal Welfare/Maltreatment) that accomplishes three functions: initial screening (SCREEN), evaluation (EVALUATION) and investigation (INVESTIGATION). SCREEN includes general questions about pet ownership, elder adults characterizations of their relationships with pets, and any concerns that elder adults might have about pet welfare. EVALUATION probes the concerns elder adults have about pet management, care, and welfare. INVESTIGATION is for cases where elder adult abuse or animal abuse is actually suspected; this assessment includes details regarding the nature of the abuse and the identity of the perpetrator. INVESTIGATION is modeled on one developed by Ascione, et al. (2007) for use in the context of domestic violence. A small-scale field test will determine if the wording and format of these instruments are acceptable to APS personnel. The Utah Department of Human Services IRB Chair Gary Franchina, approved this initial field testing of the assessment protocol which is currently under way. The Division Directors and PIs will meet at the conclusion of the field testing and evaluate the feedback from APS personnel and make appropriate adjustments to the instrument. I1. INVESTIGATION (If Yes to S2.3, S2.4, S2.5, S2.6 and/or S2.7) Issues to address with elder adult (or other appropriate respondent) I1.1 Has anyone ever threatened to harm the pet(s) belonging to the elder adult? If so, who did this? What was the nature of the threat? Why was the threat made? Threat made to coerce the elder adult into silence about abuse of the elder? Threat made to coerce elder adult into relinquishing financial assets? Other please explain. I1.2 Has anyone ever actually hurt or killed a pet or pets belonging to the elder adult? If so, who did this? What was done to the pet(s)? Why was the pet hurt or killed? Was this reported to the police or animal control or a humane society? If the pet was injured but not killed, was the pet taken to a veterinarian? What was the veterinarians response to the pets injuries? Did the veterinarian suspect that the injuries were not the result of an accident (e.g., hit by car, caught leg in fence)? Other please explain I1.3 Has the elder adult ever threatened to hurt or kill a pet or pets? If so, why did the elder adult do this? I1.4 Has the elder adult ever actually hurt or killed a pet or pets? If so, what was done to the pet? Why did the elder adult do this? Was this reported to the police or animal control or a humane society? If the pet was injured but not killed, was the pet taken to a veterinarian? What was the veterinarians response to the pets injuries? Did the veterinarian suspect that the injuries were not the result of an accident (e.g., hit by car, caught leg in fence)? I1.5 Is there evidence of animal hoarding in the elder adults home (e.g., more animals than can be properly cared for, diseased and dying animals, animal feces/urine in home, etc.)? I1.6 Is there evidence of other types of hoarding (e.g. paper products, refuse, clothing, food, etc.)? Context. Over the past three decades, research attention to the overlap among animal maltreatment, child abuse and neglect, and domestic violence has increased. One outcome of such research is the availability of assessment protocols to measure dimensions of animal welfare and animal abuse in the context of child maltreatment and intimate partner violence (Ascione, 2007). In contrast, we are not aware of any empirical research on animal welfare and abuse issues related to the needs of abused elder adults or other vulnerable adults (Cook-Daniels, 1999; Rosen, 1995). As a consequence, and with financial support from the Kenneth A. Scott Charitable Trust, we are developing and field testing assessment protocols that will shed light on animal welfare and animal abuse factors related to the challenges to serving the needs of elder and vulnerable adults. Our project activities are conducted with the collaboration and cooperation of the Utah Division of Adult and Aging Services and Utah Adult Protection Services. Once the assessment protocols have been field tested, revised, and developed into their final forms, information on the availability of the forms will be disseminated to adult services agencies on a national level. Additionally, a training DVD will outline animal welfare issues implicated in providing services to elder adults and in investigating reports of elder adult abuse. Use of the assessment protocols may promote annual tabulation of information on animal welfare and animal abuse issues implicated in cases of abuse of elder adults and vulnerable adults. This type of tabulation would be unique in the U.S. and we hope that our approach will become a model for such assessment E1. EVALUATION (if Yes to S1.1.1) E1.1 Given elder adults current circumstances, is pet ownership a reasonable and viable option? If yes, explore possible avenues for acquiring a pet (purchase, adoption, fostering) or arranging pet visitation (local humane society) (if Yes to S2.1) E1.2.1 Are you worried about being able to provide food for your pet? (Yes No) E1.2.2 Are you worried about being able to provide veterinary care for your pet? (Yes No) E1.2.3 (if applicable) Are you worried about being able to exercise your pet? (Yes No) E1.2.4 Are you worried about being able to give your pet attention and affection? (Yes No) E1.2.5 Are you worried about who will care for your pet if you need to be hospitalized? (Yes No) E1.2.6 Are you worried about what will happen to your pet if you need to relocate to different housing (e.g., an assisted living facility, live with family member)? (Yes No) E1.2.7 Are you worried about your pet dying? (Yes No) E1.2.8 Are you worried about what will happen to your pet when you die? (Yes No) (If Yes to S2.2) E1.3.1 Are you concerned about being able to discipline and control your pet? (Yes No) (if Yes, please explain your concern _____) E1.3.2 Does your pets behavior ever worry you? (Yes No) (if Yes, please explain why you are worried_____) E1.3.3 Does your pet ever frighten you? (Yes No) (if Yes, please explain why you are frightened ____) E1.3.4 Other concerns about controlling your pets behavior? (if Yes, please explain ________________________) We wanted to find out what (or if) other states were asking any questions about pets at any point in their interactions with or about older adults. Our research assistant, Jylisa Doney, has helped us survey the 50 states. Preliminary letters explaining the process and research purpose were written to each of the states and introduced Ms. Doneys name and level of participation. In her follow-up phone calls, Ms. Doney asked state representatives about any screening for animal-welfare related issues they may address in connection with Adult Protective Services or any other elder abuse screening. So far, 40 states have responded to this brief survey there are 41 total responses because one state had two respondents. States are not identified because we promised them confidentiality of the results. Question1 simply asks if, after hearing the explanation, the respondent feels comfortable in proceeding. Question 2: In your screening process for elder abuse, do you ask if pets are present in the home? Yes: 20 (49%) No: 21 (51%) . Question 2A: If YES, do you ask about the kind(s) and number of pets? Yes: 15 (75%) No: 5 (25%) Question 3: Do you ask any questions concerning pet abuse or animal welfare in general? Yes: 5 (12%) No: 36 (88%) Question 4: Do you ask any questions about other pet welfare issues an elder adult might have (e.g. cant afford pet food/veterinary care, hard to exercise pet, pet has become difficult to control)? Yes: 7 (17%) No: 34 (83%) Question 5: Besides your screening protocol, are pet/companion animal issues included in any other protocols or assessments used by your agency for example, investigation protocols? Yes: 12 (29%) No: 29 (71%)