Anaerobic Bacteria. Category. Spore-forming: rod, Gram (+)--- Clostridium Nonspore-forming: see next slides . Category. Clostridium Species.
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rod, Gram (+)--- Clostridium
see next slides
Pathogenesis of tetanus caused by C tetani
2-5 x 0.3-0.5um
produces two exotoxins: tetanolysin, and tetanospasmin(a kind of neurotoxin, toxicity strong)
The actions of tetanospasmin are complex and involve three components of the nervous system: central motor control, autonomic function, and the neuromuscular junction.
retrograde transport to (CNS)
delitescence：a few days to several weeks
The two animal species most susceptible to this toxemia are horses and humans.Pathogenicity
occurs within 2 days
Double Hemolysis Circles
---A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G.
---type A. 62%
---Not all produce toxin.
---C and D not
---G plasmid encoded.
---spores heat resistant.
eating uncooked foods
---GI, duodenum, blood stream, neuromuscular synapses.
---light chain,A,50 kDa;
---A potent toxin
---4: foodborne, infant, wound, undetermined.
---Certain foods; wound not.
---Foodborne botulism, consumption.
---Infant botulism, 1976, under 12m.
---ingestion, colonize and produce toxin in the intestinal tract of infants.
---weakness, dizziness,dryness of the mouth.
---Neurologic features: blurred vision, inability to swallow, difficulty in speech, descending weakness of skeletal muscles, respiratory paralysis.
---specifically neutralized, antitoxin.
---toxoided, make good antigens.
---does not develop, amount toxic.
---Once bound, unaffected by antitoxin.
---circulating toxin ,neutralized , injection of antitoxin.
---treated immediately with antiserum.
---multivalent toxoid,unjustified,infrequency. experimental vaccine.
---by clinical symptoms alone
--- most direct and effective: serum or feces.
---most sensitive and widely used: mouse neutralization test. 48h.
Culturing of specimens 5-7d.
---proper food handling and preparation.
--- spores survive boiling (100 degrees at 1 atm) 1h.
---toxin heat-labile, boiling or intense heating, inactivate the toxin.
---bulge, gas, spoiled.
(per/ml or gm) Anaerobes:Aerobes
Nasal Washings 103-104 3-5:1
Saliva 108-109 1:1
Tooth Surface 1010-1011 1:1
Gingival Crevice 1011-1012 1000:1
Stomach 102-105 1:1
Small Bowel 102-104 1:1
Ileum 104-107 1:1
Colon 1011-1012 1000:1
Female Genital Tract
Endocervix 108-109 3-5:1
Vagina 108-109 3-5:1
Abdominal Infection Avg of 5 species
Less complex then nl flora
Fecal flora 400 different species
Those predominant in stool are not infecting species
Veillonella, Bifidobacterium rarely pathogenic
Species uniquely suited to cause infection predominate
4.Synergistic Mixture of Aerobes& Anaerobes
E. coli Consume O2
Allow growth of anaerobes
Anaerobes promote growth of other bacteria by being antiphagocytic and producing B-lactamasesCharacteristics of Anaerobic Infections