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The Internet at Home and in the Workplace Chapter 8 Brief History of the Internet In the 60’s the Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency created a network throughout the country called ARPANET 1972 Email capabilities are introduced

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brief history of the internet
Brief History of the Internet
  • In the 60’s the Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency created a network throughout the country called ARPANET
  • 1972 Email capabilities are introduced
  • In 1986, the NSF connected its network called NSFnet to ARPANET and the internet was born
  • In 1995 commercial carriers such as Sprint took over the control of the internet backbone
then the world wide web
Then the World Wide Web
  • Tim Berners-Lee came up with the idea of linking information like a spider web, thus the name web
  • CERN site, Berners-Lee’s lab, is considered the birthplace of the World Wide Web
  • Collections of links or hyperlinks many times are in a different color and underlined
  • Clicking on a link appears that the computer is “moving” to that site but actually the pages are coming to the computer requesting them
enter the browser
Enter the Browser
  • Marc Andreessen created the first graphical browser as a college student
  • Added a GUI and allowed people to view pictures over the web as well as links
  • Named his first browser Mosaic, which later developed into Netscape browsers
  • Today the most common browser is Microsoft’s Internet Explorer
how the internet works
How the Internet Works
  • The internet is actually a giant network of networked computers
  • Each message sent over the internet is divided into packets and is sent towards is destination in uniform sized packets
  • TCP/IP or Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol handles the addressing of the message and chooses the delivery route
internet service providers
Internet Service Providers
  • The ISP provides the server and the software to connect to the internet
  • Online services such as AOL provide internet service as well as other “members-only” services
  • Many ISP in Stephenville including Tarleton and one month’s service will cost somewhere in the neighborhood of $20/month
using a browser
Using a Browser
  • The browser is generally divided into three parts:
    • Control Panel
    • Display window
    • Status line
  • When you start the browser generally it will display the home page or the main page of the creator of the browser or of your ISP
  • The home page can be changed in the browser
browser functions and features
Browser Functions and Features
  • Menus
    • Pull-down menus
  • Buttons such as back and forward allow you to navigate on the web as well as perform other functions such as printing
  • Just below the toolbar you will see the URL window
  • URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator and is the address of a particular web page
  • Example
  • The http stands for hypertext transfer protocol and is the set of rules for sending graphical web pages
  • The next part is the domain name, in this case
  • The .edu is called the top-level domain and it signifies the purpose of a site (.edu is educational, .com is commercial, etc.)
  • URLs can be bookmarked or added to a list of favorites so you can choose a site off your list without typing the URL
plug ins
  • Programs that work in conjunction with a browser to add more functionality
  • Many times for audio and video
  • Some examples include Adobe Acrobat Reader, Flash Player, and more
web page programs
Web Page Programs
  • Web pages used to be static, meaning things didn’t change often and were not interactive
  • As the web grew, programming capabilities grew so that databases could be used and more functionality could be delivered to the end user
  • Javascript and VBscript are simple languages that run in the browser
  • Other programs such as Java Applets and Active X controls are embedded in the browser and run when the page loads
wireless internet access
Wireless Internet Access
  • Newer technology called WAP allows people to surf the web from their wireless devices
  • Includes cell phones, PDAs, and more
  • WAP protocol is a set of rules that allows a web server to convert its content into a format appropriate for smaller, simpler devices
searching the internet
Searching the Internet
  • Software located at its own site that allows users to enter their own search term
  • Search engines keep their own databases of web site information that have been collected by spiders
  • Spiders (also bots or crawlers) are pieces software that visit websites and index them automatically
  • Metasearch engines combine the power of more than one search engine by searching the search engine
  • Examples of search engines include Google, Altavista, and Excite
other items on the web
Other items on the web
  • Directories, such as those found at Yahoo! Are categorical listings of web sites that have been indexed by humans
  • Has higher precision (most of your hits are about the subject you requested) but has lower number of site returned
usenet or newsroups
Usenet or Newsroups
  • A loose network of computers that allow postin and reading messages on a certain topic
  • Require newsreader software
  • Generally has an FAQ section, or frequently asked questions which spell out the rules of good behavior, also called netiquette.
  • Sometimes heated arguments or inappropriate postings, called flaming, will lead to flame wars.
  • To stop this sometimes a list will be moderated and the moderator will scan postings first and not allow flames to be posted
  • Stands for file transfer protocol
  • Set of rules between computers that allows the transfer of programs
  • FTP servers host many programs that users can download to their own computer
  • Most of this is down on an anonymous FTP server but sometimes a username and password is required
  • One of the older internet technologies that allows users to login to a remote compute and appear as if they were sitting at that computer
  • Usually requires a login
  • Most web browsers support telnet
e mail
  • Electronic mail is the most used feature of the internet
  • Requires a mail server to collect and distribute email messages in a mailbox
  • Email addresses usually consist of a username, the @ character, and the domain of the email provider
  • Email client software allows users to check their email on their computer and allow filtering of incoming messages to reduce the amount of spam, or unwanted email
e commerce or electronic commerce
E-commerce or Electronic Commerce
  • Three main types:
    • B2B-Business to business
      • Use internet exchanges to provide markets between business for their goods and services
    • B2C-Business to consumer
      • Two types:
        • Pure Play means they sell only on the internet (Amazon)
        • Bricks and clicks means they sell both on the internet and froma traditional store (Gap)
    • C2C-consumer to consumer
      • Auctions such as eBay are examples of consumer to consumer e-commerce
issues with e commerce
Issues with E-commerce
  • Security issues around credit card information. Adding SSL technology (secure socket layer) is software that protects data during its travel across the internet
  • Taxation over the internet continues to concern lawmakers who are losing a lot of sales tax as buyers have greater access to out of state sellers
internet e commerce laws
Internet E-Commerce Laws
  • Internet Tax Freedom Act
    • No state and local tax on internet services
    • No tax on out-of-state business
    • Created a study of internet commerce to gather more information for Congress
    • Calls on foreign governments to not tax the internet as well
  • Internet Discrimination Act passed in 2000 extends these provisions through 2005
portals and advertising
Portals and Advertising
  • Portal is a personalized gateway to the internet that many times provides additional services such as email and weather or financial information
  • Allows users to set their own preferences and see information important to them
  • My Yahoo! Is an example
  • Many times supported by advertising from the portal providers affilliates
more on advertising
More on advertising
  • Banner ads usually appear at the top of the page you are looking at
  • Pop up ads which come in two varieties launch new windows with advertisements
    • Pop-over ad displays the new window on top of your browser
    • Pop-under ads display the new window under your browser and are generally seen after you close your internet browser
  • Context sensitive ads are ads that are placed on site with similar material such as advertisements for Sports Illustrated magazine on ESPN
  • A private internet set up for specified users, usually to provide business information to employees
  • Very inexpensive to set up using TCP/IP
  • Most of the time and money is spent deciding and providing content
  • When a company provides access to its intranet to select customers or suppliers, this is called creating an extranet
virtual private networks vpn
Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
  • Provides technology to use the internet as a channel for private data communication
  • Tunneling or encapsulation transfers data between two similar networks over an intermediate network
  • Uses PPTP or Point to Point Tunneling Protocol
  • Allows employees at home to access their information on their computer at work as well as information on the company intranet