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The Appropriateness of Celebrity Endorsement In Developing African Nations: A Study Of Cameroon and Kenya Ceasarine Nyaseda & Amstrong Ayuk IBA 8010 Spring 08. This paper explores the practice of Celebrity Endorsement as used in the developing nations
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of Cameroon and Kenya. With Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, it initiates a newer way of
viewing celebrity endorsement.
Contribute to the complexity of celebrity endorsement in Kenya and Cameroon. They also
challenge the appropriateness of celebrity endorsement; a practice that has been successful in
western societies, in Africa. This will be done with the use of two case studies involving sports
celebrities; Samuel Eto of Cameroon and Paul Tergat of Kenya.
Celebrity endorser is defined as “any individual who
enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition
on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in
and advertisement” (McCracken, 1989,p.311)
The paper acknowledges the increasing trend of
celebrity endorsement and why companies around the
world are using this marketing tool to sell their
products/ services and ideas.
and also plays profession for FC Barcelona.
three consecutive times.
in the marathon field
From the study we coined two terms to define the difference
between endorsement in Cameroon and Kenya.
We coined the mane CFC (Celebrity- Firm - Consumer)
Model to establish two relationships in celebrity endorsement; The Firm
and the Celebrity Endorserand The Celebrity Endorser and the Consumer.
In it we will use the mediating factors of Exchange and National Culture
to explain how Value can sometimes be hard to achieve within the
above relationships. (SEE PAGE8)
CAMEROON VS. KENYA
Although the two countries in this study may exhibit
similar traits on a general outlook, there are subtle
differences that could in fact lead to dissimilar
perspectives on celebrity endorsement.
Based on the Hofstede Model we analyzed the two
nations as follows.
The keenness with which fans follow their sports heroes even off-season is not
the same in Kenya where participation is often limited to current championships
Cameroonians therefore tend to be more assertive and competitive
Kenyans generally more cautious with their spending
This means that Kenyans are more thrifty and persevering than their
Agency Theory and Celebrity Endorsement
A high level of collectivism is positively related to congruence ofthe Firm and Celebrities in developing African Nations.
Longer-term orientation is positively related to the success of Long-term Celebrity endorsement projects in developing African nations.
Firms in developing African nations that are highly masculine and less risk averse are more likely to succeed in celebrity endorsement.
Firms in developing African nations that have high uncertainty avoidance are less likely to succeed in celebrity endorsement.
Leadership and Celebrity Endorsement
leadership at administrative levels and thus it is crucial that organizations harmonize
their internal structures to consumer/stakeholder expectations.
The two leadership styles discussed in this paper in relation to celebrity
endorsement were Transactional leadership and Transformational
In highly individualistic African societies the costs of using a Celebrity may prove to be higher because of the utility maximizing effect.
In a highly collectivist African society the celebrity may have a hardertime negotiating in self-interest.
In an African society with higher power distance the celebrity is most likely to work under the Firm’s control.
Firms in Africa that are highly risk averse will avoid the use of Celebrities to endorse their products because of the high levels of uncertainty involved.
High Power Distance is positively related to the transformational effect of Celebrity endorsement to consumers in developing African nations.
A high level of collectivism is positively related to the transformational effect of Celebrity endorsement to consumers in developing African nations.
Ceasarine Nyaseda & Amstrong Ayuk IBA 8010 Spring 08