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SQL server 2008 Beyond Relational. Михеев Юрий. 29 мая 2008г. 18:30. Module Overview. Spatial Data Filestream Data Storage XML Data and Query Hierarchies and HierarchyID Sparse Data Designs Sparse Columns Filtered Indexes Filtered Statistics. Relational and Non-Relational Data.

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sql server 2008 beyond relational

SQL server 2008Beyond Relational

Михеев Юрий

29 мая 2008г. 18:30

module overview
Module Overview
  • Spatial Data
  • Filestream Data Storage
  • XML Data and Query
  • Hierarchies and HierarchyID
  • Sparse Data Designs
    • Sparse Columns
    • Filtered Indexes
    • Filtered Statistics
relational and non relational data
Relational and Non-Relational Data
  • Relational data uses simple data types
    • Each type has a single value
    • Generic operations work well with the types
  • Relational storage/query may not be optimal for
    • Hierarchical data
    • Sparse, variable, property bags
  • Some types
    • benefit by using a custom library
    • use extended type system (complex types, inheritance)
    • use custom storage and non-SQL APIs
    • use non-relational queries and indexing
spatial data
Spatial Data
  • Spatial data provides answers to location-based queries
    • Which roads intersect the Microsoft campus?
    • Does my land claim overlap yours?
    • List all of the Italian restaurants within 5 kilometers
  • Spatial data is part of almost every database
    • If your database includes an address
spatial data types
Spatial Data Types
  • The Open Geospatial Consortium defines a hierarchy of spatial data types
    • Point
    • Linestring
    • Polygon
    • MultiPoint
    • MultiLinestring
    • MultiPolygon
    • GeomCollection
    • Non-instanciable classes based on these
sql server 2008 and spatial data
SQL Server 2008 and Spatial Data
  • SQL Server supports two spatial data types
    • GEOMETRY - flat earth model
    • GEOGRAPHY - round earth model
  • Both types support all of the instanciable OGC types
    • InstanceOf method can distinguish between them
  • Supports two dimension data
    • X and Y or Lat and Long members
    • Z member - elevation (user-defined semantics)
    • M member - measure (user-defined semantics)
properties and methods
Properties and Methods
  • The spatial data types are exposed as SQLCLR UDTs
    • Use '.' syntax for properties
    • Use '.' syntax for instance methods
    • Use '::' syntax for static methods
    • Methods and Properties are case-sensitive
  • Each type uses a set of properties and methods that correspond to OGC functionality
    • With Extensions
    • Geography implements all OGC properties and methods
      • Geography implements most OGC properties and methods
    • 2-D vector only implemented
input
Input
  • Spatial data is stored in a proprietary binary format
  • Instance of the type can be NULL
  • Can be input as
    • Well Known binary - ST[Type]FromWKB
    • Well Known text - ST[Type]FromText
    • Geography Markup Language (GML) - GeomFromGml
  • Can also use SQLCLR functions
    • Parse
    • Point - extension function
  • Input from SQLCLR Type - SqlGeometry, SqlGeography
output
Output
  • Spatial Data Can Be Output As
    • Well Known binary - STAsBinary
    • Well Known text - STAsText
    • GML - AsGml
    • Text with Z and M values - AsTextZM
  • SQLCLR standard method
    • ToString - returns Well Known text
  • As SQLCLR object - SqlGeometry, SqlGeography
  • Other useful formats are GeoRSS, KML
    • Not Directly Supported
slide11
SRID
  • Each instance of a spatial type must have an SRID
    • Spatial Reference Identifier
  • SRID specifies the specification used to compute it
    • SRID 4326 - GPS
    • SRID 4269 - usually used by ESRI
    • SRID 0 - no special reference, default for GEOMETRY
  • Methods that use multiple spatial types (e.g., STDistance) must have types with matching SRID
    • Else method returns NULL
  • Geography instance must reference one of these SRID stored in sys.spatial_reference_systems
useful methods properties
Useful Methods/Properties
  • Descriptive
    • STArea
    • STLength
    • STCentroid
  • Relation between two instances
    • STIntersects
    • STDistance
  • Collections
    • STGeometryN
    • STPointN
sample query
Sample Query
  • Which roads intersect Microsoft’s main campus?
  • SELECT * FROM roads WHERE roads.geom.Intersects(@ms)=1
filestream storage
Filestream storage
  • Storing large binary objects in databases is suboptimal
    • Large objects take buffers in database memory
    • Updating large objects cause database fragmentation
      • In file system however, "update" is delete and insert
      • "Before image" in an update is not deleted immediately
  • Storing all related data in a database adds
    • Transactional consistency
    • Integrated, point-in-time backup and restore
    • Single storage and query vehicle
sql server 2008 filestream implementation
SQL Server 2008 Filestream Implementation
  • A filegroup for filestream storage is declared using DDL
    • Filestream storage is tied to a database
  • The filegroup is mapped to a directory
    • Must be NTFS file system
    • Caution: Files deleteable from file system if you have appropriate permissions
  • VARBINARY(MAX) columns can be defined with FILESTREAM attribute
    • Table must also have UNIQUEIDENTIFIER column
    • Filestream storage not available for other large types
  • Data is stored in the file system
programming with filestreams
Programming with Filestreams
  • Filestream columns are available with SQL methods
    • If SQL is used, indistinguishable from varbinary(max)
  • Filestream can be stored and accessed using file IO
    • PathName function retrieves a symbolic path name
    • Acquire context with
      • GET_FILESTREAM_TRANSACTION_CONTEXT
    • Use OpenSqlFilestream to get a file handle based on
      • File Name
      • Required Access
      • Access Options
      • FilestreamTransaction context
sql server 2000 and xml data
SQL Server 2000 And XML Data
  • SQL Server 2000
    • OPENXML - XML decomposition to relational
    • SELECT...FOR XML - XML composition from relational
  • SQLXML - Series of Web Releases
    • Access to relational data as XML using HTTP/IIS
      • With optional stylesheet-based transformation
    • SQLXML bulk loader - XML -> relational -> BCP
    • Middle-tier based XML composition (SQLXML view)
    • SQLXML client libraries
    • Stored procedures exposed as Web Service through IIS
sql server 2005 and xml data
SQL Server 2005 and XML data
  • Native XML data type
  • XML Schema support in database
    • Mapping of SQL Server types to XSD types
  • XQuery support
    • Exposed as methods on XML data type
    • XQuery strings are input to these methods
  • XML Indexes
  • Many improvements to SELECT...FOR XML
  • XML input from file system through BULK data provider
  • .NET XML APIs available through SQLCLR
  • SQLXML functionality ships with database
  • SSIS supports XML input through adapter
xquery support
XQuery Support
  • The XML data type has five methods
    • Four are accessor methods that use XQuery
      • exists - returns bit - used to check based on expression
      • value - returns single value from XML, cast to SQL type
      • query - returns XML data type output
      • nodes - decomposes XML to rowset - similar to OPENXML
    • One is a mutator method that uses XML DML
      • modify - performs a modification of XML instance
      • modify(insert....) - inserts single node
      • modify(replace value of...) - updates single element/attribute value
      • modify(delete...) - deletes all nodes that match expression
xml query and indexes
XML Query and Indexes
  • XQuery methods use relational query processor
    • Relational and XQuery processed into a single plan
    • XML decomposed into "node table" during processing
  • XML Indexes speed XQuery processing
    • Primary XML Index - materializes node table, primary key
    • Value XML Index - for searching on node values
    • Path XML Index - useful when path itself is selective
    • Property XML Index - name/value property bag matching
  • XML content can be used with Fulltext Search
sql server 2008 xml enhancements
SQL Server 2008 XML Enhancements
  • Mapping of new date/time data types to XSD types
  • Support for more XML Schema constructs
    • Union and list types
      • Many industry-standard XSD schemas use this
    • Lax validation of xsd:any wildcards
      • Office documents and other XSD schemas use this
  • XQuery support for 'let' clause in FLWOR expressions
  • XML DML supports insert of XML data type
hierarchical data
Hierarchical Data
  • Hierarchical data consists of nodes and edges
    • In employee-boss relationship, employee and boss are each nodes, the relationship between them is an edge
  • Hierarchical data can be modeled in relational as
    • Adjacency model - separate column for edge
      • Most common, column can either be in same or separate table
    • Path Enumeration model - column w/hierarchical path
    • Nested Set model - adds "left" and "right" columns to represent edges, which must be maintained separately
sql server 2005 and hierarchical data
SQL Server 2005 and Hierarchical Data
  • SQL Server 2005 adds Native Hierarchical Queries
    • Recursive common table expression
    • ANSI-standard
  • Hierarchical Data can be modeled as XML
    • XML data type uses ORDPATH format to store elements, attributes and hierarchical constructs
sql server 2008 and hierarchical data
SQL Server 2008 and Hierarchical Data
  • New Built-In Data Type - HierarchyID
  • SQLCLR based system UDT
    • Useable on .NET clients directly as SqlHierarchyId
  • An implementation of path enumeration model
    • Uses ORDPATH internally for speed
hierarchyid
HierarchyID
  • Depth-first indexing
  • "Level" property - allows breadth-first indexing
  • Methods for common hierarchical operations
    • GetRoot
    • GetLevel
    • IsDescendant
    • GetDescendant, GetAncestor
    • Reparent
  • Does not enforce tree structure
    • Can enforce tree using constraints
sparse properties
Sparse Properties
  • Many designs require sparse properties
    • Hardware store has different attributes for each product
    • Lab tests have different readings for each test
    • Directory systems have different attributes for each item
  • These are name-value pairs (property bags)
  • Because they don't appear on each tuple (row) they are difficult to model
modeling sparse properties
Modeling Sparse Properties
  • Sparse Properties often modeled as separate table
    • Base table has one row per item - common properties
    • Property table has N rows per item - one per property
    • Known as Entity-Attribute-Value
  • Can be modeled as sparse tables
    • 256 table limit in SQL Server JOIN
  • Can be modeled as sparse columns
    • 1024 column limit in SQL Server tables
  • Can be modeled as XML
    • Common properties are elements, sparse are attributes
sql server 2008 and sparse columns
SQL Server 2008 and Sparse Columns
  • Sparse Column extends column limit
  • Still 1024 column limit for "non-sparse" columns
  • Up to over 4000000 sparse columns
  • Column marked as SPARSE in table definition
  • Additional column represents all sparse column name value pairs as attributes in a single XML element
filtered indexes and statistics
Filtered Indexes and Statistics
  • In a sparse column design, 95% of values for a column can be NULL
    • SQL Server 2008 implements efficient storage
  • Filtered indexes can be used with sparse columns
  • Filtered statistics can be kept on sparse columns
    • Can keep track of only non-null value distribution
review
Review
  • SQL Server stores relational and non-relational data
  • Spatial data has
    • Library of spatial functions
    • Three standard input and output formats
  • Filestream storage stores BLOBs on file system
    • Buffer, fragmentation savings
  • XML data support improves with each release
  • Direct type for support of hierarchical data
  • EAV efficiently modeled with sparse columns
resources
Resources
  • SQL Server Spatial Data Technology Center http://www.microsoft.com/sql/2008/technologies/spatial.mspx
  • Whitepaper: Delivering Location Intelligence with Spatial Data http://www.microsoft.com/sql/techinfo/whitepapers/spatialdata.mspx
  • MSDN Webcast: Building Spatial Applications with SQL Server 2008, Event ID: 1032353123
  • Whitepaper: What's New for XML in SQL Server 2008 http://www.microsoft.com/sql/techinfo/whitepapers/sql_2008_xml.mspx
  • Whitepaper: Managing Unstructured Data with SQL Server 2008 http://www.microsoft.com/sql/techinfo/whitepapers/sql_2008_unstructured.mspx
  • BOL: http://msdn.microsoft.com/ru-ru/library/bb543165(sql.100).aspx
  • http://www.microsoft.com/Rus/sql/2008/default.mspx
  • WebCasts: http://www.microsoft.com/sqlserver/2008/en/us/events-webcasts.aspx
  • JumpStart: http://sqlserver2008jumpstart.microsofttraining.com/content/info.asp?CcpSubsiteID=69&infoid=27