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Smoke Monitoring for Prescribed and Wildland Fires and Natural Events Action Plan(NEAP). Jim Russell Pacific Northwest Region USDA Forest Service 503.808.2956 jrussell01@fs.fed.us Interagency Smoke and Air Council Sacramento, California April 23-24 th , 2003. Categories of Fire Use.

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smoke monitoring for prescribed and wildland fires and natural events action plan neap

Smoke Monitoringfor Prescribed and Wildland Fires and Natural Events Action Plan(NEAP)

Jim Russell

Pacific Northwest Region

USDA Forest Service

503.808.2956

jrussell01@fs.fed.us

Interagency Smoke and Air Council

Sacramento, California

April 23-24th, 2003

categories of fire use
Categories of Fire Use
  • Prescribed Fire
    • Management Ignited Fire
  • Wildland Fire Use for Resource Benefit
    • Lightning or Human Ignition Managed under a Fire Management Plan
  • Wildfire or Wildland Fire
    • Unwanted and Unplanned Lightning or Human Caused Fire
smoke produces particulate matter that adversely affects human health
Smoke Produces Particulate Matter that Adversely Affects Human Health
  • Increased premature deaths
  • Aggravation of respiratory or cardiovascular illness
  • Lung function decrements
  • Increased work loss
  • Changes in lung function/structure/natural defense
criteria pollutants

Key criteria pollutants generated by fire

Criteria Pollutants

National Air Quality Standards

  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Particulate Matter
  • Ozone
  • Nitrogen Oxide
  • Lead
  • Sulfur Dioxide
other compounds emitted by fire
Methane

NMHC

Formaldehyde

Acrolein

Acetaldehyde

1,3-butadiene

Benzene

Toluene

Benzo(a)pyrene

O-xylene

m,p-xylene

n-hexane

Polynuclear organic material

Carbonyl sulfide

Methyl chloride

Other Compounds Emitted by Fire
slide6

(similar size to pollen)

(similar size to fly ash)

(similar size to dust)

particulate matter
Particulate Matter
  • 10-100 lbs/ton
  • Criteria Pollutant
  • Direct effects on human health and welfare
  • Adverse impacts on fireline workers
  • Visibility impairment
relating fine particle and visibility measurements to human health 1
Relating Fine Particle and Visibility Measurements to Human Health 1

1 from Idaho Department of Environmental Quality's Wildfire Natural Events Action Plan

slide10
Wildfire can emit as muchPM2.5 in a day as a large point orarea source does in a year(estimates from a county in Washington)
objectives for fire use under the 10 year comprehensive strategy
Objectives For Fire Use under the 10-Year Comprehensive Strategy
  • Restoration of Fire-Adapted Ecosystems
    • Successful Outcome – Fire adapted ecosystems are restored, rehabilitated and maintained, using appropriate tools, in a manner that will provide sustainable environmental, social, and economic benefits.
  • Improve Fire Prevention and Suppression
    • Successful Outcome - Losses of life are eliminated, and firefighter and damage to communities and the environment from severe, unplanned and unwanted wildland fire are reduced.
  • Reduce Hazardous Fuels
    • Successful Outcome –Hazardous fuels are treated, using appropriate tools, to reduce the risk of unplanned and unwanted wildland fire to communities and to the environment
  • Promote Community Assistance
    • Successful Outcome – Communities at risk have increased capacity to prevent losses from wildland fire and the potential to seek economic opportunities resulting from treatments and services.
smoke management plans as effective mitigation
Smoke Management Plans as Effective Mitigation
  • Prevent fire use smoke from entering and accumulating in designated and smoke sensitive areas. (Question: How do we quantify impacts - nuisance, visibility reduction, and NAAQS Violation under the SMP)
  • Emphasize Emission Reduction
  • Maximize Burning Opportunities
  • Protect Public Health
how do we assure that the role of fire in our fire dependent ecosystems is recognized in our smp
How do we assure that the Role of Fire in our Fire Dependent Ecosystems is Recognized in our SMP
  • Concept of Managing Total Fire Emissions – Prescribed fire vs. wildfire overtime.
    • The Goal is the long term reduction of wildfire emissions.
approaches to meeting the goal of supporting our smp s
Approaches to Meeting the Goal of Supporting our SMP’s
  • Pacific Northwest Smoke Monitoring Monitoring Network
  • FASTRAC(PFIRS) – Emission Tracking
  • FASTRAC(PFIRS) - Emission Inventory
  • Interstate SMP Coordination - Can our computers talk with one another?
why monitor fire use smoke
Why Monitor Fire Use Smoke ?
  • For Prescribed Fire …
    • Before the burn,
      • To establish pre-burn air quality & visibility levels
      • To make input into modeling decision support systems (i.e. BlueSky)
    • During the burn,
      • To aid the Fuels Manager. and State Smoke Manager in the decision to request/permit additional burning or to curtail burning.
      • To determine if predicted smoke dispersion, avoidance, and mixing is accurate decisions
      • After the burn,
      • To assess performance of SMP
why monitor wildland fire
Why Monitor Wildland Fire
  • To Protect Public and Firefighter Health by
    • Adding health officials in the determination to health or safety alerts or evacuation
    • Determining whether a NEAP is needed the for Attainment/Nonattainment Areas
    • Developing Emission Inventories for tracking Regional Haze and development of baseline Smoke Emission Contributions.
how should smoke be monitored
How Should Smoke Be Monitored?
  • Stationary vs. mobile(portable) monitors
  • FRM/FEM vs. non-FRM
  • QC/QA – how much effort ?
  • SOPs – how much consistency / training ?
  • Analyses and Reporting – to whom, when and for what purpose ?
who should be monitoring smoke and for what purpose
Who Should Be Monitoring Smoke and For What Purpose?
  • State and Local Health Departments ?
    • YES to protect human health and public safety
  • Federal Land Managers ?
    • YES to help manage all Fire Use and assist states and county air regulators during periods of wildland fire
    • YES to protect firefighters
  • Private Burners
    • ?
  • US EPA Emergency Response
    • ?
what kinds of smoke monitoring can be done
What Kinds of Smoke Monitoring Can Be Done ?
  • Real-time estimates (e.g.Radiance, DataRam, TEOM, EBAM, BAM-1020, etc)
  • Federal Reference Method (e.g., Hi Vol)
  • Short term (1 hour)
  • Daily average (PM10 or PM2.5 Standard)
  • Annual average (PM10 or PM2.5 Standard)
  • Speciated (e.g, for toxics, for visibility (IMPROVE), etc)
slide20
Who Should Be Communicating Smoke Concentrations to the Public and Their Effects on Human Health and Safety ?
  • State & Local Health Departments ? YES
  • Federal Land Managers ? NO
  • Private Burners ? NO
  • US EPA ? ?
slide21

Real-time Smoke Monitors Evaluated for USDA Forest

Optec NGN-3 PM2.5 Nephelometer

BGI PQ200 PM2.5 FRM Gravimetric

Radiance Research Nephelometer Model M903

Met-One Instruments GT-640 Nephelometer

Anderson RTAA 800 Aethalometer

slide23

Example of Existing Monitoring Network For Monitoring Wildland and Prescribed Fire Smoke

  • PNW Smoke Monitoring Network (FS/BLM,WA/OR)
  • USDA Forest Service DataRam Cache
definition of monitoring
Definition of Monitoring
  • To watch, observe, or check for a special purpose………………….
  • To keep track of…………
  • One that warns………….
  • A device for observing a biological condition or function or change…….
  • A heavily armed warship appointed to assist a teacher………………….
smoke monitoring contract conditions
Smoke Monitoring Contract Conditions
  • Forest Service Agrees To:

1. Provide physical site to locate monitoring equipment, including temperature controlled shelter, AC power, and telephone service for data retrieval.

2. Provide site operator(s) that will be available, during and after monitoring equipment installation, for instruction and initial operation training. Time commitment for this phase is approximately 1 day per site per operator.

  • 3. Manage the day-to-day operation following Ecology’ Air Monitoring Quality Assurance Plan and Procedures.
smoke monitoring contract conditions1
Smoke Monitoring Contract Conditions
  • State Agrees to:

1. Test, calibrate, and configure equipment at Ecology’s HQ facility.

2. Assist in the installation of equipment at various monitoring locations.

3. Train Forest Service operator(s) annually at Ecology’s HQ facility.

4. Technical support for each site

5. Routine editing and archiving of the data.

6. Provide Forest Service with web site information and training.

7. Technical assistance with data retrieval problems associated with Ecology equipment

slide28

Washington State Air Monitoring Network

Particulates

Ozone

Carbon Monoxide

Sulfur Dioxide

Nitrogen Dioxide

slide29

Washington State Air Monitoring Network

Particulates

Ozone

Carbon Monoxide

Sulfur Dioxide

Nitrogen Dioxide

FS Particulates

key conclusions
Key Conclusions
  • The need for Smoke Monitoring is significant for both Wildland Fire and Fire Use Activities.
  • It is not simply the responsibility of the State and County Air Regulators to monitor Smoke Impacts generated from Fire Use Activities on Federal Land.
  • Cooperation and Collaboration are essential if we are to meet the goal of reducing total smoke emission over time within our Fire Dependent Ecosystems.
key conclusion continued
Key Conclusion (Continued)
  • There needs to be an emphasis in smoke monitoring at the geographic area and interstate level based on the planned increase in prescribed burning being proposed by federal and state land managers.
  • The increase in the frequency and intensity of wildland fires and the subsequent effect on public and firefighter health must be acknowledge and dealt with by those suppressing the fire and those trying to protect public health adjacent to the wildfire.
  • State Monitors target population centers and not rural areas that federal burning may impact in the future.
  • We need to be a good neighbor with our private land neighbors.
other conclusion and question
Other Conclusion and Question?
  • Reference www.satguard.com/usfs for DataRams website referenced in this presentation.