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Pragmatics. The Vessel into which all other components are placed! A Functionalist Model. Language Review. 1 Definition of Language

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pragmatics

Pragmatics

The Vessel into which all other components are placed!

A Functionalist Model

language review
Language Review
  • 1 Definition of Language
    • A socially shared code or conventional system for representing concepts through the use of arbitrary symbols and the combination of those symbols. Bloom and Lahey
  • 2. Perspectives of language
    • 1. Components
    • 2. Discourse
    • 3. Receptive/Expressive
  • 3. 4 views of language development
  • 4. Communication Circle
  • 5. Language Fan: Form/Content/Use
components of language
Components of Language
  • Pragmatics
  • Phonology
  • Semantics
  • Syntax
  • Metalinguistics
  • Emergent Literacy
  • Central Auditory Processing (CAP)
pragmatics4
Pragmatics
  • Definition: study of the relationship between language and the context that are basic to an account of language understanding
    • social use of language
  • It’s about COMMUNICATION
pragmatic concepts
Pragmatic Concepts
  • Sociolinguistic: Culture & Communication
  • Development: Begins with Cry- ends with the death sigh
  • Theorists
      • 1. Dore 2. Halliday
      • 3. Roth & Spekman 4. Prutting
      • 5. Fey 6. Others
pragmatics intentionality
Pragmatics=Intentionality
  • Speech Act and Development of Intentionality
      • Perlocutionary
      • Illocutionary (INTENTIONALITY) @ 6 months
      • Locutionary (First Words
development of intentionality
Development of Intentionality
  • Perlocutionary-Caregiver assigns intentions to infant’s cry, smiles, vocalizations, gestures
  • Illocutionary-Infant begins to initiate INTENTIONALITY through cry differentiation, smiles, gestures
  • Locutionary-Modality specific: Verbal Language or Gestures (sign language)
  • It’s a PIL,
    • what’s a ILP, a LIP?
theorists dore prag 3
Theorists: DorePrag 3
  • Studied younger children developing language
  • Taxonomy appropriate for language below MLU of 3 or through telegraphic speech
  • Taxonomy (p. 242)
pragmatics halliday prag 4
Pragmatics: HallidayPrag. 4
  • Halliday’s perspective: Language is used to interact with others, regulate their behavior and to fulfill speaker’s needs by having a listener/s respond appropriately
  • Taxonomy Use: older children who are verbal because it is multi-word taxonomy
  • Taxonomy
    • similar to Dore’s except for Heuristic
dore halliday comparison
Dore

Label

Repeat

Answer

Request Action

Request Answer

Calling

Protesting

Practice

Halliday

Personal(that’interesting, self-talk)

Imitating

Informative(got something to tell you)

Regulatory(do as I tell you)

Interactional (initiation)

Personal(withdrawal)

Instrumental (I want)

Imaginative (let’s pretend)

Heiristic (why?)

Dore/Halliday Comparison
halliday s taxonony
Halliday’s Taxonony
  • Halliday observed Broad pragmatic functions instead of individual utterance functions as observed by Dore BUT considerable similarity
  • Emergence of Speech
      • initially speech emerges to accompany action, not to convey information
      • attention is restricted to a single object and action associated with it
      • notes object relations or comments on the event (recurrence)
halliday s taxonomy 2
Halliday’s Taxonomy, #2
  • Separated into 3 PHASES
    • Phase I
      • ages 9 months to 17 months
      • initially speech emerges to accompany action, not to convey information
      • communicative functions
        • instrumental
        • regulatory
        • interactional
        • personal
halliday s taxonomy 3
Halliday’s Taxonomy #3
  • Phase II
    • characterized by a generalization of the previous functions into new broader functions and by the disappearance of isomorphic forms
    • two broad functions emerge
      • mathetic general learning functions
        • includes the Personal and Heuristic
      • pragmatic involves needs satisfaction and control
        • includes Instrumental and Regulatory functions
    • at two-word level, child begins to use structure independent of function
    • in general: Old Forms (constructions)-New Ideas New Forms (generalization) - Old ideas
halliday s taxonomy 4
Halliday’sTaxonomy#4
  • Phase III
    • child attains adult-like functions
    • attained by age 2
    • ability to combine several language functions within a single utterance
    • -use of a lexicogrammatical (semantic/syntactic) system makes in possible to fulfill (perlocutionary) all necessary functions in a discourse simultaneously
      • ex: mommy, cookie hot -interactional, description, inferential requesting
pragmatics roth spekman prag 4
Pragmatics: Roth & Spekman prag. 4
  • Taxonomy use: more comprehensive
  • Taxonomy:
      • Triangle with points of
          • Communication Intention
          • Presupposition
          • Organization of Discourse

CI

P

OD

communication intention
Communication Intention
  • Communication Intention
    • Divided into Range and Form
      • Range
        • Preverbal
        • Holophrases
        • Multi-Word
      • Form
        • Gestural
        • Gestural + Vocalization
        • Verbal/ Sign Language
communication intention for roth and spekman preverbal prag 5
Communication Intention for Roth and Spekman PREVERBAL prag #5
  • Preverbal Intentions
    • Attention Seeking to self
    • Attention seeking to events, others,
    • Requesting
      • objects
      • Actions
      • Information
    • Protesting/Rejecting
    • Responding/Acknowledging
    • Informing
    • Greeting (social)
communication intentions for roth and spekman holophrases 7
Communication Intentions for Roth and SpekmanHolophrases #7
  • Holophrases
    • Naming
    • Commenting
    • Request Objects
      • Present
      • Absent
    • Requesting Information
    • Responding
    • Protesting/Rejecting
    • Greetings
slide19

Communication Intentions for Roth and Spekman Multi-Word #8

  • Multiword
    • Requesting Information
    • Requesting Action
    • Responding to Requests
    • Stating or Commenting
    • Regulating Conversational Behavior
    • Other Performatives such as teasing, warning sarcasm, humor, metaphors, etc (metalinguistics)
matrix example
Performatives

teasing

warning

sarcasm

humor

metaphors

Examples

Matrix Example
presupposition for roth and spekman
Presupposition for Roth and Spekman
  • Principle of Informativeness
  • Three Aspects
    • 1. Topic
      • New/Old Information
      • Needs of listener
    • 2. Listener
      • Conversational participants
      • Type of language (register)
    • 3. Cohesive Devices
      • Anaphoric reference -use of pronouns
      • Ellipsis
      • Conjunctions
      • Deictic terms (empty pronouns) this, that, these, those
organization of discourse
Organization of Discourse
  • 5 Aspects
    • 1. Conversational Initiation
    • 2. Turn Taking
      • conversational speaking time
    • 3. Staying on Topic OR Conversational Maintenance
    • 4. Conversational Repairs
    • 5. Topic Termination
conversational repairs
Conversational Repairs
  • Linguistic Structure
    • phonologic poon--spoon
    • morphologic he sleep--sleeps
    • syntactic cats--big cats
  • Linguistic Content
    • repetition
    • confirmation
    • elaboration
  • Extralinguistic
    • pitch change
    • stress
    • demonstration
pragmatics assignment example
Organization of Discourse

Form

Range

items

Presupposiiton

-listener

- topic

Organization of Discourse

conversation initiation

turn taking

eye contact

conversation repair

conversation termination

Examples

verbal

dyad

familiar:

initiated by conv. Part

example

part. Made eye contact lasting about __second

repair example

Pragmatics’ Assignment Example
taxonomy grid
Organization of Discourse

Form

Range

items

Presupposiiton

-listener

- topic

Organization of Discourse

conversation initiation

turn taking

eye contact

conversation repair

conversation termination

Examples

Taxonomy GRID
slide26

Communication Intentions

RANGE

Used

Examples

Social

Informing/Commenting

Regulating

Conversational

Behavior

Negating/Protesting

Requesting Info

Requesting Action

Responding to Request

Heuristic

slide27

Intentions

Used

Examples

Social

Informing/Commenting

Regulating

Conversational

Behavior

Negating/Protesting

Requesting Info

Requesting Action

Responding to Request

Heuristic

Presupposition

Used

Examples

New/Old Information

Conversational Participants

Register

Anaphoric reference

Ellipsis

Conjunctions

Deictic terms

Organization Of Discourse

Used

Examples

Initiation/Conservation

Conversation Maintenance

Turn Taking

Repair

Termination

Intentions

Presupposition

Organization of Discourse

slide28

Organization Of Discourse

Used

Examples

Initiation/Conservation

Conversation Maintenance

Turn Taking

Repair (EXPAND)

Termination

prutting s pragmatic taxonomy
Prutting’s Pragmatic Taxonomy
  • Includes all of Roth and Spekman’s
    • Communication Intention
    • Presupposition
    • Organization of Discourse
  • ADDS: Proxemics
    • )

CI

OD

P

PROX

proxemic s importance
Proxemic’s Importance
  • “The eyes of men converse as much as their tongues, with the advantage that the ocular dialect needs no dictionary, but is understood the world over,” Ralph Waldo Emerson
  • Skills
    • Nonlinguistic elements
      • distance from a speaker,
      • gaze
      • touch
    • Paralinguistic elements (fluency, rate, intonation)
fey s taxonomy
Fey’s Taxonomy
  • Assertive/ Responsive Matrix
  • Definitions
    • Conversational Assertiveness
      • Definition: ability and/or willingness to take a conversational turn when none has been sloicited by a partner.
    • Responsiveness-
      • Definition: ability to comply with the speaker’s range of intent.
  • Matrix
fey s taxonomy assessment intervention implications
Fey’s Taxonomy: Assessment/ Intervention Implications
  • For Assessment: In a PBA determining the child’s ability in both areas.
  • For intervention: Using a communication modality that encourages both. Usually SLI children are better at being “Responsive” than “Assertive.”
  • Reason: therapy usually reinforces Responsiveness.
    • Ex. Question/Answer
pragmatics questions
Pragmatics’ Questions
  • 1. Define pragmatics.
  • 2. How is pragmatics ‘tied to’ the 4 views of language development?
  • 3. What is the Speech Act progression of pragmatic development
  • 4. Why is pragmatics ‘central’ to language?
  • 5. Explain Dore’s taxonomy
  • 6. Explain Halliday’s taxonomy
  • 7. Explain Roth & Spekman’s taxonomy
  • 8. Explain Prutting’s taxonomy
  • 9. Explain Fey’s taxonomy
  • 10. What is the purpose of knowing these taxonomies?