Philosophy of Religion. Philosophy of Religion. The philosophical study of religion is primary focused upon three areas: The existence of God Rationality and of Religious Belief The Problem of Evil. Existence of God. St. Anselm- Ontological Argument Gaunilo- Anti Ontological Argument
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The philosophical study of religion is primary focused upon three areas:
1. The greatest possible being is Perfect. It is All powerful, All knowing, All good.
2. In order to be the perfect being,
IT must exist.
3. Because if you did not exist, then it would not be the greatest or most perfect thing)
4. Therefore the greatest possible being must necessarily exist!
1) Objects are in motion
2) If something is in motion, then it must be set into motion by something outside of itself
3) There can not be an infinite chain of movers, movees
4) So, there is a first, unmoved mover that sets the world into motion.
5)Hence God exist and is the first unmoved mover.
1) Some events cause other events.
2) If an event happens, then it must be caused by some prior event outside of itself.
3) There cannot be an infinite causal chain of cause an effect
4) So, there must be a first, efficient cause, uncaused cause.
5) Hence, God is this first cause and exist.
1) Contingent things exist.
2) Each contingent thing has a time when it fails to exist (Aquinas assumes contingent objects are not eternal)
3) So, if everything were contingent, then there would be a time in the past when nothing existed. A time of complete emptiness
4) That time of complete emptiness would have been in the past.
5) If nothing existed in the past, then nothing would exist now, since something cannot come from nothing.
6) So, if everything were contingent, nothing would exist now.
(But clearly things do exist now, the world is not empty.)
7) Therefore a being exist that is not contingent.
8) Hence, God is this necessary being and he exist.
1) Objects have properties to greater or lesser degrees
2) If an object has a property to a lesser extent, then there must be an object that has it to the maximum extent.
3) So there is a being that has all properties to the greatest possible degree
4) Hence this being is God and he exist
1) Among objects that have goals or purpose, some have minds and others do not.
2) An object that has a goal, but does not have a mind, must have been designed by a being that had a mind.
3) So there exists a being with a mind who designed all of the mindless objects that act for ends.
4) Hence this Being is God and he does exist.
(Contingent & Necessary Being)
Teleological Argument (Design)
We have the idea of God, perfection, in order to have that idea of perfection, it must have come from the perfect being…God.
I exist, but did not cause myself to exist, therefore there must exist a necessary being, God, which causes me (and the rest of the world) to exist.
The purpose and harmony of nature. The complexity of creatures; surely there is a designer.
Ontological Argument- problem: Existence is not a property of objects.
Cosmological Argument- problem: he claims some contingent beings are necessary or at least eternal.
(Contingent & Necessary Being)
Teleological Argument (Design)- problem: he claims that at best there may be a architect but not a interactive designer.
A) If you believe in God, and he exist, then you are going to heaven and are going to reap infinite rewards.
B) If you don't believe in God, and he does exist, then you are going to hell and suffer infinite pain.
C) If you believe in God, and he does not exist, you have wasted some small measure of energy.
D) If you don't believe in God and he does not exist, then you have saved some small measure of energy.
There is a reason why things are exactly as they are and not some other way.
"a stupid trick"- lacking meaning and purpose…