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Introduction to Pubmed Gail P. Taylor, Ph.D. UT San Antonio MBRS-RISE and MARC-U*STAR Research Training Programs 3/2006 Supplemental Materials: Help File from Pubmed: Dalhousie Library Pubmed Tutorial:

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introduction to pubmed

Introduction to Pubmed

Gail P. Taylor, Ph.D.

UT San Antonio

MBRS-RISE and MARC-U*STAR Research Training Programs


supplemental materials
Supplemental Materials:
  • Help File from Pubmed:
  • Dalhousie Library Pubmed Tutorial:
what is a scientific paper
Culmination of scientific research

Report of original scientific findings

Published in scientific journal

Reviewed by peers

Widely available

Forms foundation for your research!

What is a Scientific Paper?
each paper can be identified as a reference
Each Paper can be Identified as a “Reference”
  • Taylor, G. P., Anderson, R. A., Reginelli, A . D. and Muneoka, K. (1994). FGF-2 induces regeneration of the Chick limb bud. Dev. Biol, 163(1), 282-284 .
  • Authors, Date, Title, Journal, Volume(issue), pages…
  • Within any scientific paper, other papers are cited (also can say “referenced”)
  • Gives credit for findings, ideas
  • More citations = more impact on field
  • Listed in references at end of paper
why do i want to find references
Why Do I want to Find References?
  • Record of what is current in field
  • Record of important “foundation” papers
  • Helps you to get overview of field
  • Tells you what articles to download
  • Can save in reference manager and link to actual pdf files of the original article that you’ve found
  • Can automatically insert ref into thesis
historically pre computer
Historically: Pre-Computer
  • Biological Abstracts: Monthly publication of large, Indexed, books of abstracts:
  • Science Citation Index: Who referenced what paper, through time…
  • Subscribe to the Journal
  • Go to Library that owns journal and xerox
  • Reprint request
  • Interlibrary loan
  • Computerized database
  • Over 12 million article references
    • 4300 biomedical journals and magazines
    • From over 70 countries
  • Maintained by National Library of Medicine at the NIH
  • Can search for references to journal articles by using:
    • Text words
    • Medical Subject Headings (MeSH); keywords assigned by NLM
    • Both…
  • Commonly covers 1966 - the present
looking closer
Looking Closer…
  • UI - Unique identifier - Medline number
  • TI - Title
  • PG - Pages
  • AB - Abstract

Can search any of these fields….

another close look
Another Close Look…
  • AU, FAU - Author
  • PT - Journal Article
  • CY - Country
  • TA - Journal
  • CIN - Complete ref.
  • MH - Mesh Headings
      • For Organizing…
mesh headings mh
MeSH Headings (MH)
  • Sorting by content
  • Like the “keywords” associated with an article
  • Large “filing cabinet”
    • Choose correct heading, get whole folder dumped into your search…

Topic: Fibroblast Growth Factors

how to access medline and get records
How to Access Medline and Get Records?

Devise smart computer programs to search the different fields and mine the Medline database for information…

how to access medline
How to Access Medline?
  • Privately licensed search programs:
    • Ovid
      • UT System buys
      • Access through library Resources
  • For free, over the Internet:
    • PubMed -
searching using pubmed
Searching Using Pubmed
  • Pubmed searches Medline and other pertinent databases.
  • Online help at:
  • Just type in what you want
  • Try entering “diabetes” (without italics)
what do you get
What do you get?

12,497 -PAGES- of Refs?

249,940 total refs?

field limits look familiar
Field Limits…look familiar?

Choose between text or MESH searching…or Keep both!

the preview index tab
The Preview/Index Tab
  • Small summary of Results
  • Shows the total number of references that you’ve gotten…
  • Here, can also add conditions to your search…
boolean examples
Boolean Examples…
  • diabetes AND IGF
    • Returns all references with both words in them. “diabetes” and “IGF” appear in the reference.
  • diabetes OR IGF
    • Returns all refs that contain either “diabetes” or “IGF”. Lots more articles. Can be about either, not necessarily both…
  • diabetes NOT IGF
    • Returns all refs that contain “diabetes,” except those that also have IGF in them…
refining your search
Refining your Search…
  • Enter IGF at Bottom…
  • We are now down to 160 References!

Entered “IGF”Pressed ANDPressed Preview…

refine again
Refine again…
  • Refine again with “juvenile”
  • We are now down to 19 articles!
  • These are all about humans, in english, have abstracts, were published since 2000, and contain all three words (and some MeSH): juvenile, diabetes, and IGF.
history what have we done
History - What have we done?
  • Shows searches you have done…
  • Can also type at top of page and do come refining to most recent search…
details search strategy
Details - Search Strategy

Can see that some words were from the MeSH, some were text words, the Lang limitation, publish date, etc….

let s look at a reference
Let’s Look at a Reference!
  • Click on the highlighted number in the results column.
  • It will make that group active…

The “Display”

“Show”, “Sort”

and “Send To”

can be changed

at will, and


buttons pressed.

  • Old days:
    • Very old- write for re-print (extras sent by publisher)
    • Look up paper copy in library. Xerox.
  • Newer days:
    • Current papers:
      • On Pubmed
      • Online Journal with subscription (pdf files)
      • Interlibrary loan (paper)
      • Write to corresponding author? (pdf or reprint)
      • Go to health science center
      • Buy online
        • loansome doc from Pubmed
        • From publisher online
    • Journal Archives (older articles free):
      • Jstor: Scholarly Journal Archive
      • Pubmed Central:
linking possibilities31
Linking Possibilities
  • Not even an abstract
  • Abstract
  • Online Access
  • Online + Free on Pubmed Central
up close
Up close…
  • The link is to Blackwell-Synergy Online
  • We do not have a subscription…but they DO give more details on the article.
what do i do with them
What do I do with Them?
  • Save your refs as a text file from your browser
  • Save your refs as a file directly on your computer
    • Good when you have a whole list of them
    • Display them as Medline, then save
    • Import them into Endnote…
  • Save up to 100, making a personal compilation of desired files, for later download/text/ordering..
  • Order: Loansome doc allows you to buy a copy of the reference…
getting what you ask for
Getting what you ask for…
  • Why is this happening?
  • Shouldn’t you get the same number for bubonic and bubonic plague???
plague solutions
Plague Solutions…
  • No…remember the MeSH, as well as the fact that some references don’t have abstracts…
  • To look, bring the search to the top.
  • Go to “Details” to figure things out…
indirect way of accessing journals
Indirect way of Accessing Journals:
  • Science Direct: - HUGE assortment of 1700 scientific journals. Began with Elsevier (huge publisher) and has expanded. Try here first.
  • Wiley Interscience:
  • Springer Link:
  • Nature Online: - The entire Nature family of journals.
  • American Chemical Society Web Editions (Online Journals): - Journals published by the American Chemical Society
other databases
Other Databases
  • Many are accessible through UTSA’s Library
  • Bioengineering and Biotechnology Database: Illumina (library owns)
  • American Institute of Physics Journals:
  • Applied Science and Technology: Wilsonweb
  • Engineering Village II (contains Compendex)
  • Wiley Interscience:
other interesting resources
Other Interesting Resources
  • Annual Reviews Online: - Large, general review articles on particular topics. Look and see if there is one that interests you!
  • Lexis/Nexis: Popular Press, Newspapers, government publications, biographies, transcripts of shows….