Machining Process Used to Produce Various Shapes. CHAPTER 23. Introduction. Addition to producing various external or internal round profiles,cutting operations can produce many other parts with more complex shapes. Fig:Typical parts and shapes produced with the machining process .
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Fig:Typical parts and shapes produced with the machining process
Fig:Some of the basic type milling cutters and milling operations.
Fig : A typical part that can be produced on a milling machine equipped with computer controls.Such parts can be made efficiently and respectively on computer numerical control (CNC) machines, without the need for refixturing or reclamping the part
Fig : (a) Conventional milling and climb milling (b) Slab milling operation, showing depth of cut , d, feed per tooth, f, chip depth of cut, tc, and workpiece speed, v. (c) cutter travel distance lc to reach full depth of cut.
Fig:A face milling cutter with indexable inserts.
Fig : Face milling operation showing (a) action of an insert in face milling; (b) climb milling; (c) conventional milling d)dimensions in face milling. The width of cut, w, is not necessarily the same as the cutter radius
Fig:The effect of insert shape on feed marks on a face-milled surface (a) small corner radius, (b) corner flat on insert, and (c) wiper consisting of a small radius followed by a large radius which leaves smoother feed marks (d) feed marks due to various insert shapes
Fig:Terminology for a face milling cutter
Fig : The effect of Lead angle on the undeformed chip thickness in face milling. Note that as the lead angle increases, the chip thickness decreases, but the length of contact (i.e. chip width) increases. The insert in (a) must be sufficiently large to accommodate the contact length increases
Fig : (a) Relative position of the cutter and insert as it first engages the workpiece in face milling, (b) insert positions towards the end of cut, and (c) examples of exit angles of insert, showing desirable (positive or negative angle) and undesirable (zero angle) positions. In all figures, the cutter spindle is perpendicular to the page.
Fig : Cutters for (a) Straddle Milling, (b) form milling, (c) slotting, and (d) slitting with a milling cutter.
Fig : (a) T-slot cutting with a milling cutter. (b) A shell mill.
Fig : Mounting a milling cutter on an arbor for use on a horizontal milling machine.
Fig : Surface features and corner defects in face milling operations
Fig : Schematic illustration of a horizontal-spindle column-and-knee type milling machine.
Fig : Schematic illustration of a vertical-spindle column-and-knee type milling machine.
Fig : Schematic illustration of a bed-type milling machine. Note the single vertical-spindle cutter and two horizontal-spindle cutters.
Fig : A computer numerical control, vertical-spindle milling machine. This machine is one of the most versatile machine tools.
Fig : Schematic illustration of a five-axis profile milling machine. Note that there are three principal linear and two angular movements of machine components.
Fig : Typical parts that can be made on a planer.
Fig : (a) Typical parts that can be made by internal broaching. (b) Parts made by surface broaching. Heavy lines indicate broached surfaces.
Fig : (a) Cutting action of a broach, showing various features. (b) Terminology for a branch.
Fig : Chipbreaker features on (a) a flat broach and (b) a round broach. (c) Vertical broaching machine.
Fig : Terminology for a pull-type internal broach used for enlarging long holes.
Fig : Turn broaching of a crankshaft. The crankshaft rotates while the broaches pass tangentially across the crankshaft’s bearing surfaces.
Fig : Broaching in internal splines.
Fig : Examples of various sawing operations.
Fig : (a) Terminology for saw teeth. (b) Types of tooth set on saw teeth, staggered to provide clearance for the saw blade to prevent binding during sawing.
Fig : High-speed steel teeth welded on steel blade. (b) Carbide inserts brazed to blade teeth.
Fig : Types of burs.
Fig : Nomenclature for an involute spur gear.
Fig : (a) Producing gear teeth on a blank by form cutting. (b) Schematic illustration of gear generating with a pinion-shaped gear cutter. (c) Schematic illustration of gear generating in a gear shaper using a pinion-shaped cutter. Note that the cutter reciprocates vertically. (d) Gear generating with rack-shaped cutter.
Fig : Schematic illustration of three views of gear cutting with a hob.
Fig : (a) Cutting a straight bevel-gear blank with two cutters. (b) Cutting a spiral bevel gear with a single cutter.
Fig : Finishing gears by grinding: (a) form grinding with shaped grinding wheels; (b) grinding by generating with two wheels.
Fig : Gear Manufacturing cost as a function of gear quality. The numbers along the vertical lines indicate tolerances.