Implementing the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SOTL)
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Implementing the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SOTL). We will: -Define SOTL -Identify types of SOTL projects -Examine steps of SOLT projects -Identify resources to develop SOTL projects -Evaluate potential SOTL projects Scott Cottrell, Ed.D. Assistant Professor

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Implementing the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SOTL)

We will:

-Define SOTL

-Identify types of SOTL projects

-Examine steps of SOLT projects

-Identify resources to develop SOTL projects

-Evaluate potential SOTL projects

Scott Cottrell, Ed.D.

Assistant Professor

[email protected]

304-293-0410


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What is the SOTL?

The scholarship of teaching and learning is an investigation of a problem relating to teaching or learning.

The study of the problem is realized through methods appropriate to disciplinary epistemologies (e.g., quasi-experimental design, case studies), and the results are communicated to peers for critical reflection (e.g., journals, conference presentations, online delivery).


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What is Considered Scholarship?

www.aamc.org/mededportal

PowerPoint Presentations

Web Sites

Virtual Patients

Lab Guides

CD-ROMs

Cases (PBL, OSCE, Team Learning, CPC, etc)

Faculty Development Resources


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Why is SOTL important?

  •  SOTL breaks down barriers between research and teaching.

  •  SOTL yields an opportunity for teachers to frame their existing responsibilities as an investigation.

  •  SOTL allows teachers to present educational reforms and innovations to peers for critical reflection.

  • SOTL helps satisfy expectations of research in an academic institution.

    (AAMC- Advancing Educators and Education: Defining the Components and Evidence of Educational Scholarship)

  •  SOTL focuses on student learning and its improvement.


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What is the purpose of research?

  • Describe- pharmacy students’ academic success across demographics

  • Predict- e.g., residents’ professional behavior in future practice

  • Improve- e.g., effectiveness of intervention to improve teaching skills of nursing faculty

  • Explain- subsumes all three


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Theoretical

Framework

Scholarship

Seeks to Explain

Theoretical Development

Research Questions

Assessment

Seeks to Describe

Data Analysis

DataCollection

ResearchDesign

Distinction Between SOTL and Assessment

Cottrell, S.A. (2006). A Matter of Explanation: Assessment, Scholarship of Teaching and their Disconnect with Theoretical Development. Medical Teacher. 28(44), 305-08.


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What is a theory?

  • A theory is an explanation of events in terms of the structures and processes that are presumed to underlie them.

  • Theory consists of constructs that specify how the constructs are related.


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What is a construct?

  • A construct is a type of concept used to describe a structure of process that is hypothesized to underlie particular observable phenomenon.

  • e.g., residents’ professionalism, teaching skills, motivation, leadership


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Important Caveat

Don’t confuse theory with principles!!

For example, adult learning principles are not a theory.

Most researchers use theory much like a drunkard uses a light post – more for support than for illumination.


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Example of Confusing Principles with Theory

Educators should encourage students to exercise an innate ability to self-assess and evaluate their ability to perform a task.

  • This belief has set the stage for several studies that examine students’ self-assessment skills in a variety of learning contexts.


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Assumption is not Supported with Theoretical Support

“How do they know what they don’t know”


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Self Assessment? Don’t Bother

  • Kruger and Dunning's research, for example, argues that learners who have clear deficits and would most likely benefit from self-assessment tend to be poor self-evaluators relative to learners who are doing well.

  • Self-Reflection? - A potential construct for exploration, which is not related to accuracy of evaluation skills.


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The Essentials of SOTL

  • Identify a problem relating to teaching and learning

  • Articulate research questions

    3. Adequate preparation/literature review

  • Identify an appropriate research design to answer your question

  • Analyze the assessment results to address the research problem

  • Connect results with extant research findings

    7. Dissemination


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The Essentials of SOTL

  • Identify a problem relating to teaching

  • and learning?

  • Examples:

  • We need to improve residents’ teaching skills.

  • How should we implement 360 evaluations?

  • Are self-evaluations helpful??


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Articulate Research Questions

2. Define exactly what is it you want to

know?

Example:

What impact does on online course have on nursing students’ interest in teaching, knowledge of educational theory, and assessment skills?


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The Essentials of SOTL

3. Adequate preparation

Informing investigation with existing literature and a theoretical framework offers several advantages, including:

Direction

Focus

Coordination


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Essentials of SOTL

  • Identify an appropriate research design to

  • answer your question.

4. Identify an appropriate research design to answer your question

Things to consider:

How are your questions framed? A good question lends itself well to a particular research design.

Disciplinary epistemologies (e.g., quasi-experimental design, case studies)


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Essentials of SOTL

  • Identify learning expectations by developing

  • measurable learning objectives.

  • Examples include:

  • The resident will be able to communicate complicated material to medical students.

  • The resident will be able to identify three strategies to partner with health care managers and health care providers to assess, coordinate, and improve health care.

  • The medical student will be able to demonstrate compassion for a patient, as evidenced by sitting down to communicate important information, maintaining direct eye contact and listening/responding to questions.


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Essentials of SOTL

Operationalize: Identify existing or create new

assessment methods to capture evidence that the

residents acquired the learning objectives.

Examples include:

Patient evaluations of the resident

Chart reviews

Written exams

Student evaluations

Journals

Clinical exams


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Credible

Comprehensive

Reliable

Valid

Content

Concurrent

Predictive

Construct

Consequential

Useful/Practical in your program

SOAP

OperationalizeConsiderations for Assessment Tools:


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SOAP

Example of a Blueprint for Articulating Objectives

? = Don’t Know or Potential opportunities to incorporate

23


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Essentials of SOTL

  • Analyze the assessment results to answer the

  • research problem.


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Contributing Scholarship

6. Connect results with extant research

findings.

Otherwise, your results are isolated.


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Essentials of SOTL

7. Dissemination

- Effective communication of work to intended audiences helps move forward what is collectively known about the phenomenon.

- It also invites reflective critique to improve quality of future work.


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Examples of SOTLat WVU

Dr. Paul Ogershok recognized that teaching basic information about pediatric medicine was little fun for both faculty and students. Therefore, he designed a game to help students acquire a strong foundation of pediatric medicine. He wanted to know if students learned from the game, and whether students reflected that the game was a useful learning opportunity. As evidenced by student comments and observations on evaluation forms, it was determined that the game was a valuable and fun way to help students comprehend important information.

.


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Where do I Publish??

  • http://www.mlb.ilstu.edu/ressubj/subject/educat/sotl.htm

  • Multidisciplinary:

    Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing

    Journal of Nursing Education

    Journal of Instructional Psychology

    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education

    Chemical Educator

    Journal if the International Association of Medical Science Educators


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Quality of Research?

  • What population was it based?

  • Does it clearly explain constructs?

  • Does it generate questions?

  • Is it practical?


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Submitting Abstracts:Every Word Counts

1. Identify clearly the purpose of you work.

Why is it important?

2. Rely on literature to frame an argument.

  • Explain the methodology like I am a three-year old?

  • Results: Just the facts.

  • Discussion: Was purpose achieved? Limitations? How does it contribute to literature?

  • Conclusion: How does your work contribute to scholarship? New directions for research? What is the “take-home” message?


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Activity/Exercise

Identify at least one problem you would like to address about teaching and learning.

Considerations:

What specific objectives would you like students/residents/faculty to learn?

What assessment methods would help you determine whether the objectives were acquired?

What are your thoughts about methodology?


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References

Beattie DS.  Expanding the View of Scholarship (Editorial).  Academic Medicine, Vol 75, N0. 9 / September, 2000, pp. 871-876.

Bloom, B.S. (ed.). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook 1: Cognitive domain. White Plains, N.Y.: Longman, 1956.

Boyer, E.L. Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. Princeton, N.J.: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; 1990.

Cottrell, S.A. (2006). A Matter of Explanation: Assessment, Scholarship of Teaching and

their Disconnect with Theoretical Development. Medical Teacher. 28(44), 305-08.

Cottrell, S.A. & Jones, B.A. (2002). Researching the scholarship of teaching and learning: An analysis

of current curriculum practices. Innovative Higher Education, 27, 3, 10-16.

Cross, K.P. Classroom research: Implementing the scholarship of teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1996.

Huba, M.E. & Freed, J.E. Learner-centered assessment in college campuses: Shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon; 2000.

Fincher RE, Simpson DE, Menin SP, Rosenfeld GC, Rothman A, McGrew MC, Hansen PA, Mazmanian PE, and Turnbull JM.  Scholarship in  Teaching: An Impreative for the 21st Century.  Academic Medicine, Vol 75, N0. 9 / September 2000, pp. 887-894. 

Palomba, M.B. & Banta, T.W. Assessment essentials: Planning, implementing, and improving assessment in higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1999.

Shulman, L.S. (1998). Course anatomy: The dissection and analysis of knowledge through teaching. In Hutchings, P. (eds.), The course portfolio: How faculty can examine their teaching to advance practice and improve student learning. (pp. 5-12). Washington, D.C.: American Association for Higher Education.


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