how is nrega doing 200 districts 2006 7 jean dr ze and christian oldiges l.
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How is NREGA doing? (200 districts, 2006-7) Jean Dr èze and Christian Oldiges. NREGA: Fundamental Principles. Employment on demand. Legal right. Universal entitlement. Participatory approach. Accountability to PRIs. Full transparency. NREGA: Basic Entitlements.

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nrega fundamental principles
NREGA: Fundamental Principles
  • Employment on demand.
  • Legal right.
  • Universal entitlement.
  • Participatory approach.
  • Accountability to PRIs.
  • Full transparency.
nrega basic entitlements
NREGA: Basic Entitlements
  • Employment within 15 days of application.
  • Unemployment allowance.
  • Work within 5 kilometres.
  • Minimum wages.
  • Payment within 15 days.
  • No gender discrimination.
  • Basic worksite facilities.
nrega employment generation 2006 7
NREGA: Employment Generation, 2006-7
  • Total: 90 crore person-days
  • Per job card: 24 person-days
  • Per rural household: 17 person-days
  • Minimum “requirement”:a 200 crore person-days

aNAC estimate, 2004.

nrega expenditure 2006 7
NREGA Expenditure, 2006-7
  • Total: Rs. 8,813 crores
  • Per district: Rs. 44.06 crores
  • Estimated requirement for 200 districts: Rs. 20,000 crores
  • Budget allocation for 2007-8 (330 districts): Rs. 13,000 crores
number of nrega works 2006 7
Number of NREGA works, 2006-7
  • Taken up: 8.3 lakh
  • Completed: 3.8 lakh
  • In progress: 4.5 lakh
  • Approximate number of

villages in NREGA districts: 2 lakh

nrega employment 2006 7 person days per rural household
NREGA Employment, 2006-7: Person-days per rural household

a Except Assam (approximate figure, based on incomplete data).

share of disadvantaged groups in nrega employment
Share of Disadvantaged Groups in NREGA Employment
  • Women: 40%
  • Scheduled Tribes (ST): 36%
  • Scheduled Castes (SC): 26%
  • SC/ST Combined: 62%
share of women in nrega employment
Share of Women in NREGA Employment
  • National average: 40%
  • Highest shares: Tamil Nadu 81%

Rajasthan 67%

Kerala 66%

Andhra Pradesh 55%

  • Lowest shares: Bihar 17%

Uttar Pradesh 17%

Himachal Pradesh 12%

Jammu & Kashmir 4%

average expenditure and labour costs
Average Expenditure and Labour Costs
  • Average Expenditure per Person-Day Rs. 98
  • Share of Wages in Total Expenditurea 66%
  • Average Wage Cost per Person-Daya Rs. 64

aUnskilled labour only.

average wage cost per person day
Average Wage Cost per Person-Day

aExcept Assam (approximate figure, based on incomplete data).

cde ihd survey 2007
CDE-IHD Survey, 2007
  • A field survey of NREGA was recently conducted by the Centre for Development Economics (CDE) and the Institute of Human Development (IHD), with students from Delhi University and Jawaharlal Nehru University.
  • Date: May-June 2007
  • Survey Districts: Ranchi (Jharkhand)

Surguja (Chhattisgarh)

  • Number of Gram Panchayats: 23
  • Number of worksites: 47
surguja positive findings
Most families have a job card.

Awareness levels have improved.

Employment on a massive scale.

Minimum wages are being paid.

Contractors have disappeared.

Most of the works are productive.

Corruption levels have gone down.

Where there is work, NREGA is a lifeline for the rural poor.

Massive progress compared with earlier years!

Surguja: Positive Findings
surguja areas of concern
Surguja: Areas of Concern
  • Work is not “demand-driven”.
  • Long delays in wage payments.
  • Shortage of staff at all levels.
  • Poor worksite facilities (e.g. creches).
  • Violations of the transparency safeguards.
  • Corruption persists.
survey findings application process
Survey Findings: Application Process

Were most labourers at this worksite employed in response to an application for work?

Ranchi Surguja

Yes 4% 11%

No 96% 89%

survey findings wage payments
Survey Findings: Wage Payments

Proportion (%) of worksites where:

RanchiSurguja

Most labourers earned

the minimum wage n/a 84

Wages were paid in front

of the labourersa 54 79

Wages were paid within 15 days 32 16

Labourers had complaints

about wage payments 71 90

a Excluding payments through Banks

survey findings worksite facilities
Survey Findings: Worksite Facilities

Proportion (%) of worksites with the following facilities:

Ranchi Surguja

Drinking water 64 100

Shade for periods of resta 68 (16)

“Medicine kit” 68 59

Crèche 4 11

a Not including natural shade.

survey findings vigilance committees
Survey Findings:Vigilance Committees

Proportion (%) of worksites with:

Ranchi Surguja

Vigilance committee 89 84

Active vigilance committee 11 21

survey findings estimated leakages
Survey Findings:Estimated “Leakages”

Earlier surveys:

Dungarpur, April 2006: (negligible)

Garhwa, October 2006: 85%

CDE-IHD survey:

Ranchi 33%

Surgujaa 5%

a Gram Panchayat works.

the future of nrega critical issues
The Future of NREGA: Critical Issues
  • Activating the work application process.
  • Implementation of transparency safeguards
  • Timely wage payments.
  • Need for a wage policy.
  • Women’s participation.
  • Redressal systems!