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Ground-Level Ozone Smog . Gil Hanson Daniel Knopf Dina W. Zakaria. Purpose of Workshop. Recognize that Ground Level is a serious health problem on Long Island Understand formation of ground-level ozone and reactions involved. Understand its effects on plants and humans.

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gil hanson daniel knopf dina w zakaria

Ground-Level Ozone Smog

Gil Hanson

Daniel Knopf

Dina W. Zakaria

purpose of workshop
Purpose of Workshop
  • Recognize that Ground Level is a serious health problem on Long Island
  • Understand formation of ground-level ozone and reactions involved.
  • Understand its effects on plants and humans.
  • Identify bioindicators of ozone damage to plants
  • Introduce ground level ozone to science curricula
    • General Science
    • Earth Science
    • Living Environment
    • Environmental Science
    • Chemistry
goal of workshop
Goal of Workshop
  • To give teachers in high needs schools the information they need to show the immediate relevance of earth science to underrepresented minority students.
schedule monday
Schedule Monday
  • Morning
    • Introductions
    • Lectures on Ground Level Ozone
monday afternoon
Monday Afternoon
  • Discuss project topics
    • Individuals decide on their topic
    • May work in groups
    • Each group targets different topic
    • Individuals develop separate lesson plans
  • Lab Experiment
  • Begin to prepare lesson plans
  • Identify Bioindicators on Campus
tuesday
Tuesday
  • Morning
    • Look for ozone damage in Avalon Preserve Meadow
  • Afternoon
    • Lab Experiment
    • Develop a lesson plan:
      • student handouts
      • teacher presentation and notes
      • student (lab or field) activity
      • student assessments
wednesday
Wednesday
  • Morning
    • Visit Dr. Meg McGrath’s Bean Patch in Riverhead
  • Afternoon
    • Visit Dwarf Pine Plains to look for ozone damage on plants
    • Return to SBU to develop lesson plans
thursday
Thursday
  • Develop student handouts, teacher lesson plan, and test student (lab) activity
friday
Friday
  • Give presentations on topics
  • Develop projects for laboratory at Stony Brook
ozone o 3 is
Ozone, O3 , is
  • Colorless but highly irritating to life forms
  • Found in troposphere as well as in stratosphere
  • Highly reactive.
  • 10 ppm in atmosphere is lethal
good ozone v bad ozone
Good ozone

located in the stratosphere.

It traps ultraviolet rays

Protects human life

Bad ozone

produced in the troposphere

Called surface ozone or ground level (O3)

main component of smog

pollutant

Good Ozone v. Bad Ozone
slide14

http://harmanonearth.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/ground_ozone.jpghttp://harmanonearth.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/ground_ozone.jpg

nitrogen oxides nox
Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
  • Very reactive.
  • Formed by the oxidation of nitrogen gas (N2).
  • Sources of nitrogen oxides include:
      • Urban traffic
      • Combustion processes (ex: vegetation fires)
      • Lightening storms (Australia and South Africa.)
optimum weather conditions
Optimum Weather Conditions
  • During summers ozone is at highest levels
    • Increased sunlight
    • higher temperatures (> than 85o F).
    • stagnating high-pressure systems
  • During winter and wet and cool summers, ozone levels are greatly reduced.
influence of weather and episodic events on ozone formation
Influence of Weather and Episodic Events on Ozone Formation
  • The production of surface ozone air pollution:
    • peaks in the later afternoon at low elevations
    • remain high all day at higher elevations, such as in the mountains.
    • increase seasonally from April through September
      • increased amounts of sunlight
      • higher temperatures
      • commonly occurring stagnating high-pressure systems
ozone human health effects
Ozone & Human Health Effects

Ozone attacks lung tissue through oxidization reactions.

Ozone acts as a powerful irritant, some compare this to getting a “sunburn” on the lungs.

Animal toxicology studies have shown that long-term exposure to high levels of ozone can cause structural changes to the lungs.

ground level ozone and plants
Ground Level Ozone and Plants
  • Causes foliar injury in plants
  • Reduces growth
  • Reduces crop size
break out
Break Out
  • Prof. Knopf
slide21
For Humans Ground Level Ozone Oxidizes Lung Tissuehttp://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=50328
  • shortness of breath
  • chest pain when inhaling deeply
  • wheezing and coughing
  • increased susceptibility to respiratory infections
  • inflammation of the lungs and airways
  • increased risk of asthma attacks 
  • increased need for medical treatment and hospital admission for  people with lung diseases,
what is asthma
What is asthma?
  • Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and cough
how does ozone act in the lung
How does ozone act in the lung
  • Injury and inflammatory response result in :
    • An increase in small airway obstruction
    • A decrease in the barrier function of the airway epithelium
    • An increase in airway reactivity
  • After a period of weeks following a single exposure, the airway appears to return to the pre-exposure state
which populations are susceptible to ozone damage
Which populations are susceptible to ozone damage
  • One factor that explains variability is age,
    • young adults (teens to thirties) are more responsive than older adults (fifties to eighties)
    • data do not suggest that children are more responsive than young adults
  • Children may have more response if they are more exposed (spend more time outside)
  • People with asthma are the most responsive group
how quickly do ozone induced respiratory symptoms resolve in individuals without asthma
How quickly do ozone-induced respiratory symptoms resolve in individuals without asthma?
  • They should begin to improve immediately upon cessation or reduction of exposure and should have disappeared completely within 24 to 48 hours after the exposure ends
effects of recurrent or long term exposure to ozone
Effects of recurrent or long-term exposure to ozone
  • Some early evidence that long-term ozone exposure may result in new asthma
    • young children may be especially susceptible
  • Prudent to avoid repeated short-term exposures, particularly in young children, until more is known
  • Each increase of 10 ppb ozone leads to a 4% increase in deaths associated with respiratory disease
  • 250,000 people die each year from respiratory disease
  • How about Long Island?
how much is too much
How much is too much
  • More potential for effect with longer time active outdoors and with more strenuous activity
  • Human exposure studies indicate that:
    • levels above 120 ppb, heavy outdoor exertion for 1 to 3 hours can increase risk
    • levels between 80 and 120 ppb, moderate outdoor exertion for 4 to 8 hours can increase risk
  • Moderate exertion = climbing stairs, tennis or baseball, simple garden or construction work, and light jogging, cycling
  • Heavy exertion = playing basketball or soccer, chopping wood, heavy manual labor, and vigorous running, cycling
what is the air quality index
What is the Air Quality Index?
  • The Air Quality Index tells the public how clean or polluted the air is
  • The AQI uses a scale from 0 to 500 (0 to 500 ppb for ozone)
  • The higher the AQI value, the greater the level of pollution and the greater the health concern
  • AQI values below 100 are generally considered to be satisfactory
  • The AQI is divided into six categories that correspond to different levels of health concern.
how can you reduce exposure to ozone
How can you reduce exposure to ozone?
  • What is moderate exertion for one person may be heavy exertion for another
  • Cutting back on the level and duration of exertion when ozone levels are high will help
  • The times of poorest air quality are typically in the afternoon and early evening for most locations
why are we looking at plants
Why are we looking at plants?
  • Not so easy to look at peoples lungs
  • Leaves are replaced each year.
  • Easier to evaluate source of damage.
ground level ozone
Ground Level Ozone
  • Causes foliar injury
  • Reduces growth
  • Chronic exposure 40 - 80 ppb
  • Acute exposure > 80 ppb
slide34

Air Monitoring Stations

Eisenhower Park does not include ozone

http://www.dec.ny.gov/airmon/index.php

slide35

October 2004

July 2005

Ozone Oct. 2004 Biomass burning

July 2005 industry and transport

http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2006/ozone_garden.html

slide36

92 to 106 ppb85 to 91 ppb

EPA Eight Hour Ozone average of fourth highest day in year for three years

slide37
HIGH OZONE DAYS2009 Report for Suffolk CountyAmerican Lung AssociationSuffolk had highest ozone in state
  • Ozone Grade: F
  • Orange Ozone (85 – 104 ppb): 16 days
  • Red Ozone (105 – 124 ppb): 0 days
  • Purple Ozone (125 – 374 ppb): 1 day
background ozone levels
Background ozone levels
  • In 1900 = 10 to 20 ppb
  • Now = 35 ppb
  • If no reduction in global NOx productionby 2100 = 50 ppb or more
  • Global warming will lead to more hot, sunny days
  • Thus, more ground level ozone added to higher background levels
slide39

Air Monitoring Stations

Eisenhower Park does not include ozone

http://www.dec.ny.gov/airmon/index.php

ozone air pollution is harmful to plants
Ozone Air Pollution is Harmful to Plants
  • Plants take in carbon dioxide for photosynthesis.
    • When carbon dioxide enters stoma
    • Ozone also enters the stoma
    • Ozone damages cells
slide43

http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/botany/images/25-2large.gifhttp://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/botany/images/25-2large.gif

slide44

Open top field chambers to control ozone

http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/docs.htm?docid=8453

how to identify ozone injury
How To Identify Ozone Injury
  • Look for ozone injury during the mid to late summer. July to mid-September
  • Find an opening with full sunlight exposure.
  • Select areas with no obvious conditions that would cause mimicking symptoms of ozone injury.
  • Look for symptoms on mature leaves that are in full sunlight.
symptoms of ozone injury http www ars usda gov main docs htm docid 8453
Symptoms of Ozone Injuryhttp://www.ars.usda.gov/main/docs.htm?docid=8453
  • Stipples (small darkly pigmented areas ~2-4 mm diameter)
  • Bronzing and reddening
  • Chlorosis
  • Necrosis
slide48
If the answer is yes to the following, the damage is probably due to ozonehttp://www.gva.es/ceam/ICP-forests/
  • Is there any stippling?
  • Is there any reddening and/or confluent, even discoloration?
  • Do the symptoms occur on the upper leaf surface only?
  • Are the symptom expressed between the veins only?
  • Are the symptoms evenly distributed?
  • Are the symptoms more developed on the older leaves
bio indicator species
Bio-indicator Species
  • widely distributed regionally
  • are easily identified in the field
  • exhibit foliar symptoms in the field at ambient ozone concentrations that can be easily recognized as ozone injury by subject matter experts
  • ozone sensitivity has been confirmed at realistic ozone concentrations in exposure chambers
some long island bio indicators
Some Long Island Bio-indicators
  • Sweet-Gum
  • Tulip Tree (yellow-poplar)
  • Black Locust
  • Winged Sumac
  • Tall Milkweed
  • Common milkweed
  • Black Cherry
  • Northern Fox Grape
  • Cone Flower
how to identify ozone injury1
How To Identify Ozone Injury
  • The typical symptom of ozone is an upper leaf surface interveinal stipple. Stipple is the discoloration of small groups of cells between the veins, appearing as uniformly sized red to brown spots.

Yellow poplar leaf with interveinal stipple

http://www.fs.fed.us/r8/foresthealth/pubs/ozone/r8-pr25/jpg/fig4.jpg

slide52

Yellow Poplar ozone damage stippling and chlorosis

http://www.forestryimages.org/images/768x512/1505026.jpg

slide54

Bronzing of Bean Canopy

http://www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=5364028

slide55

Chlorosis Watermelon Necrosis

http://www.apsnet.org/education/K-12PlantPathways/NewsViews/views/2003_03_views.htm

slide56

Ozone damage

http://www.ncl.ac.uk/airweb/ozone/ozimg.htm

Cloverhttp://www.ceh.ac.uk/sci_programmes/GroundLevelOzone.htm

slide57

Undamaged Milkweed Damagedhttp://msnbcmedia3.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/040624/040624_milkweeds_bcol_9a.standard.jpg

slide58

Older milkweed leaves more damaged than younger leaves

http://www.fs.fed.us/r8/foresthealth/pubs/ozone/r8-pr25/jpg/fig6.jpg

how to identify ozone injury2
How To Identify Ozone Injury
  • Shaded portions of overlapped leaves do not show visible ozone injury. If you move a leaf with ozone injury that is overlapping another leaf with injury, you should see no injury on the lower leaf where the top leaf covered it.

Absence of injury on the shaded portion of exposed leaf.

http://www.fs.fed.us/r8/foresthealth/pubs/ozone/r8-pr25/jpg/fig7.jpg

slide68

Extent of foliar injury training

  • http://www2.nature.nps.gov/air/edu/O3Training/index.cfm
important web sites
Important web sites
  • DEC monitoring siteshttp://www.dec.ny.gov/airmon/index.php
  • Ground Level Ozone Primer for teachershttp://www.ciese.org/curriculum/airproj/ozoneprimer.html
  • More detailed look at ground level ozonehttp://www.atmosphere.mpg.de/enid/23c.html
  • Identify Ozone Injury on Eastern Forest Bioindicator Plantshttp://www.fs.fed.us/r8/foresthealth/pubs/ozone/r8-pr25/ozoneh2.htm
  • Training on extent of damage to leaveshttp://www.nature.nps.gov/air/edu/O3Training/index.cfm
  • Using Sensitive Plants as Bioindicators - Implementation Guide http://handsontheland.org/monitoring/projects/ozone/implementation_guide.pdf
  • Tropospheric Ozone Research Project - For students Madison, WI http://www.madison.k12.wi.us/stugeon/ozone.htm
slide75
How to distinguish ozone damage on milkweed http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/ce/eek/earth/field/milkweed/slideShowIndex.htm
  • Extent of foliar injury training
  • http://www2.nature.nps.gov/air/edu/O3Training/index.cfm