Food Biotechnology Ethics. Clark Ford, Ph.D. Food Science and Human Nutrition Iowa State University. What is Food Biotechnology?. Food technology based on biology Ancient food biotechnology: Fermentation by microbes Cheese Beer Wine Bread Modern food biotechnology Tissue culture
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Clark Ford, Ph.D.
Food Science and Human Nutrition
Iowa State University
Food and Drug Administration
Determines safety for human consumption
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Determines safety of GMO agriculture
Environmental Protection Agency
Determines environmental safety
National Institutes of Health
Sets guidelines for Recombinant DNA experiments
“Flavr Savr” Tomato
Monarch butterfly: endangered?
Genetically engineered papaya resistant papaya ringspot virus
Idea: use crops to produce inexpensive
AIDS vaccine in corn
Accidental mixing into food supply
Grows 4-6 times faster
May escape, outcompete natural species
Cows, Sheep, Goats
Pharmaceutical production in milk
Zambian President Mwanawasa
2007: 300 million acres worldwide
Planted in Genetically Modified crops
55% in USA
12 million farmers
90% are small farmers in developing countries
Growing cotton in India, China
Adoption of GMOs Worldwide
2008: Cloned Animals approved by FDA
For human consumption
Goal: quality meat, milk
Best animals cloned
Is that next?
Label not required
Considered same as normal meat, milk
Not in stores yet
Not certified organic (USDA)
Improve food quality
Process not inherently harmful
Similar to traditional Plant and Animal breeding
Unless misused, outcome expected to be beneficial
Is a powerful technology that could help humanity
Bad ideas weeded out by the market, regulation, lawsuitArguments for Genetically Engineered Food
Food safety risk?
Safety risk for environment
Genetically Engineered label
not required in U.S.A.
Benefits multinational corporations
not developing nations
GMO vs normal Salmon of same age
Potential GMO food safety problems:
Random gene insertion
New gene products?
No evidence of GMO food safety problems
90% of Food allergies:
GM foods avoid genes from these sources
Peanut proteins can cause severe food allergies!
Insect resistant maize, Kenya
GMOs for developing countries
International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, India
-- American Corn Growers Association