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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Electromagnetic Induction' - Jimmy

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Electromagnetic Induction

- emf is induced in a conductor placed in a magnetic field whenever there is a change in magnetic field.

Moving Conductor in a Magnetic Field

http://www.ngsir.netfirms.com/englishhtm/Induction.htm

- Consider a straight conductor moving with a uniform velocity, v, in a stationary magnetic field.
- The free charges in the conductor experience a force which will push them to one end of the conductor.
- An electric field is built up due to the electron accumulation.
- An e.m.f. is generated across the conductor such that

E = Blv.

Induced Current in Wire Loop

- An induced current passes around the circuit when the rod is moved along the rail.
- The induced current in the rod causes a force F = IlB, which opposes the motion.

- Work done by the applied force to keep the rod moving is

- Electrical energy is produced from the work done such that

E = E It = W

E= Blv

Lenz’s Law

http://www.launc.tased.edu.au/online/sciences/physics/Lenz's.html

- The direction of the induced current is always so as to oppose the change which causes the current.

Copper Pipe Experiment

- This is a simplified diagram showing the areas of attraction and repulsion in this experiment.

http://regentsprep.org/Regents/physics/phys08/clenslaw/default.htm

Lenz’s Law and Law of Conservation of Energy

- Where does all the kinetic energy of the bar magnet go?
- Well in fact, the Ek is transformed into electrical energy.
- So this is the source of the emf, transferred from other energy into electrical energy.
- Energy would be created from nothing if the induced current acted differently.

Magnetic Flux

- The magnetic flux is a measure of the number of magnetic field lines linking a surface of cross-sectional area A.

- The magnetic flux through a small surface is the product of the magnetic flux density normal to the surface and the area of the surface.

Unit : weber (Wb)

Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction

- The induced e.m.f. in a circuit is equal to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage through the circuit.

The ‘-’ sign indicates that the induced e.m.f. acts to

oppose the change.

http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/applets/Intro_physics/kisalev/java/indcur/

Induced Currents Caused by Changes in Magnetic Flux

- The magnetic flux (number of field lines passing through the coil) changes as the magnet moves towards or away from the coil.

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java/lenzlaw/index.html

Simple a.c. Generator

- According to the Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction,

http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph11e/generator_e.htm

Back emf in Motors

- When an electric motor is running, its armature windings are cutting through the magnetic field of the stator. Thus the motor is acting also as a generator.
- According to Lenz's Law, the induced voltage in the armature will oppose the applied voltage in the stator.
- This induced voltage is called back emf.

Back emf, Eb

Driving source, V

Back emf and Power- So the mechanical power developed in motor

MultiplyingbyI, then

0

Variation of current with the steady angular speed of the coil in a motor- The maximum speed of the motor occurs when the current in the motor is zero.

0

Variation of output power with the steady angular speed of the coil in a motor- The output power is maximum when the back emf is ½ V.

t

0

Variation of current as a motor is startedThe motor begins to move

- As the coil rotates, the angular speed as well as the back emf increases and the current decreases until the motor reaches a steady state.

Larger load

Zero load

The need for a starting resistance in a motor

- When the motor is first switched on, =0.
- The maximum current, Io=V/R, very large if R is small.
- When the motor is running, the back emf increases, so the current decrease to its working value.
- To prevent the armature burning out under a high starting current, it is placed in series with a rheostat, whose resistance is decreased as the motor gathers speed.

Eddy Current

- An eddy current is a swirling current set up in a conductor in response to a changing magnetic field.

- Production of eddy currents in a rotating wheel

Applications of Eddy Current (1)

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java/detector/index.html

- Metal Detector

Applications of Eddy Current (2)

- Eddy current levitator

- Smooth braking device

- Damping of a vibrating system

Applications of Eddy Current (3)

- Induction stove

- Critical damping in the armature
- of a moving-coil galvanometer.

How an induction stove works

- The element's electronics power a coil that produces a high-frequency electromagnetic field.
- The field penetrates the metal of the ferrous (magnetic-material) cooking vessel and sets up a circulating electric current, which generates heat.
- The heat generated in the cooking vessel is transferred to the vessel's contents.
- Nothing outside the vessel is affected by the field--as soon as the vessel is removed from the element, or the element turned off, heat generation stops.

Transformer

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java/transformer/index.html

- A transformer is a device for stepping up or down an alternating voltage.
- For an ideal transformer,
- (i.e. zero resistance and no flux leakage)

Transformer Energy Losses

- Heat Losses
- Copper losses- Heating effect occurs in the copper coils by the current in them.
- Eddy current losses- Induced eddy currents flow in the soft iron core due to the flux changes in the metal.
- Magnetic Losses
- Hysteresis losses- The core dissipates energy on repeated magnetization.
- Flux leakage- Some magnetic flux does not pass through the iron core.

Designing a transformer to reduce power losses

- Thick copper wire of low resistance is used to reduce the heating effect (I2R).
- The iron core is laminated, the high resistance between the laminations reduces the eddy currents as well as the heat produced.
- The core is made of very soft iron, which is very easily magnetized and demagnetized.
- The core is designed for maximum linkage, common method is to wind the secondary coil on the top of the primary coil and the iron core must always form a closed loop of iron.

Transmission of Electrical Energy

- Wires must have a low resistance to reduce power loss.
- Electrical power must be transmitted at low currents to reduce power loss.
- To carry the same power at low current we must use a high voltage.
- To step up to a high voltage at the beginning of a transmission line and to step down to a low voltage again at the end we need transformers.

Direct Current Transmission

- Advantages
- a.c. produces alternating magnetic field which induces current in nearby wires and so reduce transmitted power; this is absent in d.c.
- It is possible to transmit d.c. at a higher average voltage than a.c. since for d.c., the rms value equals the peak; and breakdown of insulation or of air is determined by the peak voltage.
- Disadvantage
- Changing voltage with d.c. is more difficult and expensive.

Self Induction

- When a changing current passes through a coil or solenoid, a changing magnetic flux is produced inside the coil, and this in turn induces an emf.
- This emf opposes the change in flux and is called self-induced emf.
- The self-induced emf will be against the current if it is increasing.
- This phenomenon is called self-induction.

Definitions of Self-inductance (1)

- Definition used to find L

The magnetic flux linkage in a coil the current flowing through the coil.

Where L is the constant of proportionality for the coil.

L is numerically equal to the flux linkage of a circuit when unit current flows through it.

Unit : Wb A-1 or H (henry)

Definitions of Self-inductance (2)

- Definition that describes the behaviour of an inductor in a circuit

Lis numerically equal to the emf induced in the circuit

when the current changes at the rate of 1 A in each second.

Inductors

- Coils designed to produce large self-induced emfs are called inductors (or chokes).
- In d.c. circuit, they are used to slow the growth of current.
- Circuit symbol

or

Inductance of a Solenoid

- Since the magnetic flux density due to a solenoid is

- By the Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction,

Energy Stored in an Inductor

- The work done against the back emf in bringing the current from zero to a steady value Io is

Current growth in an RL circuit

- At t = 0, the current is zero.
- So

- As the current grows, the p.d. across the resistor increases. So the self-induced emf ( - IR) falls; hence the rate of growth of current falls.

- As t

Decay of Current through an Inductor

- Time constant for RL circuit

- The time constant is the time for current to decrease to 1/e of its original value.

- The time constant is a measure of how quickly the current grows or decays.

+

emf across contacts at break- To prevent sparking at the contacts of a switch in an inductive circuit, a capacitor is often connected across the switch.

The energy originally stored

in the magnetic field of the coil

is now stored in the electric

field of the capacitor.

+

Switch Design- An example of using a protection diode with a relay coil.

- A blocking diode parallel to the inductive coil is used to reduce the high back emf present across the contacts when the switch opens.

Non-Inductive Coil

- To minimize the self-inductance, the coils of resistance boxes are wound so as to set up extremely small magnetic fields.
- The wire is double-back on itself. Each part of the coil is then travelled by the same current in opposite directions and so the resultant magnetic field is negligible.

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