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Introduction to Computer Graphics CS 445 / 645. Lecture 3 General Graphics Systems. Daniel Rozin, Wooden Mirror (1999). Announcement Assignment 1 (Fire Truck) is out Due Feb 3 rd Overview – Read Chapter 2 and Appendix A1-A5 Display devices Graphics hardware Input devices

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introduction to computer graphics cs 445 645

Introduction to Computer GraphicsCS 445 / 645

Lecture 3

General Graphics Systems

Daniel Rozin, Wooden Mirror (1999)

slide2
Announcement
    • Assignment 1 (Fire Truck) is out
      • Due Feb 3rd
  • Overview – Read Chapter 2 and Appendix A1-A5
    • Display devices
    • Graphics hardware
    • Input devices
    • Graphics Software
review
Review
  • CRTs
    • Vector based
    • Raster based
    • Interlacing
review4
Review
  • Vector vs. Raster
    • Another place we see this… web-based graphics
      • Macromedia flash is vector based
      • JPG images are raster based

So what…

  • Time to transmit vs. time to generate
    • Bandwidth vs. CPU
  • Reuse of image description
vector graphics
Vector Graphics
  • How to generate an image using vectors
    • A line is represented by endpoints (10,10) to (90,90)
    • The points along the line are computed using a line equation
      • y = mx + b
    • If you want the image larger, no problem…

Cheap

transmission

Computation required

raster graphics
Raster Graphics
  • How to generate a line using rasters
    • A line is represented by assigning some pixels a value of 1
    • The entire line is specified by the pixel values
      • What do we do to make image larger?

Lot’s of extra info to communicate

No computation

display technology lcds
Display Technology: LCDs
  • Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs)
    • LCDs: organic molecules, naturally in crystalline state, that liquefy when excited by heat or E field
    • Crystalline state twists polarized light 90º.
display technology lcds8
Display Technology: LCDs
  • Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs)
    • LCDs: organic molecules, naturally in crystalline state, that liquefy when excited by heat or E field
    • Crystalline state twists polarized light 90º
liquid crystal display lcd
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

Figure 2.16 from Hearn and Baker

display technology dmd dlp
Display Technology: DMD / DLP
  • Digital Micromirror Devices (projectors) or Digital Light Processing
    • Microelectromechanical (MEM) devices, fabricated with VLSI techniques
display technology dmd dlp11
Display Technology: DMD / DLP
  • DMDs are truly digital pixels
  • Vary grey levels by modulating pulse length
  • Color: multiple chips, or color-wheel
  • Great resolution
  • Very bright
  • Flicker problems
display technologies organic led arrays
Display Technologies: Organic LED Arrays
  • Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Arrays
    • The display of the future? Many think so.
    • OLEDs function like regular semiconductor LEDs
    • But they emit light
      • Thin-film deposition of organic, light-emitting molecules through vapor sublimation in a vacuum.
      • Dope emissive layers with fluorescent molecules to create color.

http://www.kodak.com/global/en/professional/products/specialProducts/OEL/creating.jhtml

display technologies organic led arrays13
Display Technologies: Organic LED Arrays
  • OLED pros:
    • Transparent
    • Flexible
    • Light-emitting, and quite bright (daylight visible)
    • Large viewing angle
    • Fast (< 1 microsecond off-on-off)
    • Can be made large or small
    • Available for cell phones and car stereos
slide14

Display Technologies: Organic LED Arrays

  • OLED cons:
    • Not very robust, display lifetime a key issue
    • Currently only passive matrix displays
      • Passive matrix: Pixels are illuminated in scanline order (like a raster display), but the lack of phospherescence causes flicker
      • Active matrix: A polysilicate layer provides thin film transistors at each pixel, allowing direct pixel access and constant illumination

See http://www.howstuffworks.com/lcd4.htm for more info

additional displays
Additional Displays
  • Display Walls
    • Princeton
    • Stanford
    • UVa – Greg Humphreys
interfaces
Interfaces
  • What is spatial dimensionality of computer screen?
  • What is dimensionality of mouse input?
  • How many degrees of freedom (DOFs) define the position of your hand in space?
    • Space ball
video controllers
Video Controllers
  • Graphics Hardware
    • Frame buffer is anywherein system memory

Frame buffer

Cartesian Coordinates

CPU

System Memory

Video Controller

Monitor

System Bus

video controllers20
Video Controllers
  • Graphics Hardware
    • Permanent place forframe buffer
    • Direct connection tovideo controller

Frame buffer

Cartesian Coordinates

CPU

System Memory

Frame

Buffer

Video Controller

Monitor

System Bus

video controllers21
Video Controllers
  • The need for synchronization

CPU

System Memory

Frame

Buffer

Video Controller

Monitor

synchronized

System Bus

video controllers22
Video Controllers

current

previous

  • The need for synchronization
    • Double buffering

CPU

System Memory

Double

Buffer

Video Controller

Monitor

synchronized

System Bus

raster graphics systems

I/O Devices

System Bus

Display

Processor

CPU

System

Memory

Video

Controller

Frame

Buffer

Monitor

Raster Graphics Systems

Figure 2.29 from

Hearn and Baker

frame buffer
Frame Buffer

Frame Buffer

Figure 1.2 from Foley et al.

frame buffer refresh
Frame Buffer Refresh

Refresh rate is usually 30-75Hz

Figure 1.3 from FvDFH

direct color framebuffer
Direct Color Framebuffer
  • Store the actual intensities of R, G, and B individually in the framebuffer
  • 24 bits per pixel = 8 bits red, 8 bits green, 8 bits blue
    • 16 bits per pixel = ? bits red, ? bits green, ? bits blue

DAC

color lookup framebuffer
Color Lookup Framebuffer
  • Store indices (usually 8 bits) in framebuffer
  • Display controller looks up the R,G,B values before triggering the electron guns

Color Lookup

Table

0

DAC

14

Pixel color = 14

R G B

Frame Buffer

1024

software
Software
  • Hide the details
    • User should not need to worry about how graphics are displayed on monitor
    • User doesn’t need to know about how a line is converted into pixels and drawn on screen (hardware dependent)
    • User doesn’t need to rebuild the basic tools of a 3D scene
      • Virtual camera, light sources, polygon drawing
  • OpenGL does this for you…
software29
Software
  • Hide the details
    • User doesn’t need to know how to read the data coming from the mouse
    • User doesn’t need to know how to read the keystrokes
  • OpenGL Utility Toolkit (GLUT) does this for you…
software30
Software
  • Hide the details
    • User doesn’t have to build a graphical user interface (GUI)
      • Pull-down menus, scrollbars, file loaders
  • Fast Light Toolkit (FLTK) does this for you…
software31
Software
  • Hide the details
    • User shouldn’t have to write code to create a GUI
      • Positioning text boxes, buttons, scrollbars
      • Use a graphical tool to arrange visually
      • Assign callback functions to hook into source code
  • Fast Light User Interface Designer (FLUID) does this for you…
opengl design goals
OpenGL Design Goals
  • SGI’s design goals for OpenGL:
    • High-performance (hardware-accelerated) graphics API
    • Some hardware independence
    • Natural, terse API with some built-in extensibility
  • OpenGL has become a standard (competing with DirectX) because:
    • It doesn’t try to do too much
      • Only renders the image, doesn’t manage windows, etc.
      • No high-level animation, modeling, sound (!), etc.
    • It does enough
      • Useful rendering effects + high performance
    • Open source and promoted by SGI (& Microsoft, half-heartedly)
the big picture
The Big Picture
  • Who gets control of the main control loop?
    • FLTK – the code that waits for user input and processes it
      • Must be responsive to user… do as I say
    • GLUT – the code that controls the window and refresh
      • Must be responsive to windowing system and OS
    • OpenGL – the code that controls what is drawn
      • Must be responsive to the program that specifies where objects are located. If something moves, I want to see it.
the big picture34
The Big Picture
  • Who gets control of the main control loop?
    • Answer: FLTK
      • We’ll try to hide the details from you for now
      • But be aware of the conflict that exists
    • FLTK must be aware of GLUT and OpenGL state at all times
      • Must give code compute cycles when needed
    • We’ll discuss OpenGL as if it were standalone
review35
Review
  • Read Chapter 2
  • Read Appendix 1 – 5 (for next week)
  • Implement OpenGL
    • Section 2.9 is good introduction to OpenGL