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Don’t let this happen to you!! - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Don’t let this happen to you!!. HOOK EM’ HORNS!!!. MUTATIONS. Changes in DNA that affect genetic information. Gene Mutations. Point Mutations – changes in one or a few nucleotides Substitution THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT HAT ATE THE RAT Insertion THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT

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mutations

MUTATIONS

Changes in DNA that affect genetic information

gene mutations
Gene Mutations
  • Point Mutations – changes in one or a few nucleotides
    • Substitution
      • THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT
      • THE FAT HAT ATE THE RAT
    • Insertion
      • THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT
      • THE FAT CAT XLW ATE THE RAT
    • Deletion
      • THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT
      • THE FAT ATE THE RAT
gene mutations6
Gene Mutations
  • Frameshift Mutations – shifts the reading frame of the genetic message so that the protein may not be able to perform its function.
    • Insertion
      • THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT
      • THE FAT HCA TAT ETH ERA T
    • Deletion
      • THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT
      • TEF ATC ATA TET GER AT

H

H

chromosome mutations
Chromosome Mutations
  • Changes in number and structure of entire chromosomes
  • Original Chromosome ABC * DEF
  • Deletion AC * DEF
  • Duplication ABBC * DEF
  • Inversion AED * CBF
  • Translocation ABC * JKL

GHI * DEF

significance of mutations
Significance of Mutations
  • Most are neutral
    • Eye color
    • Birth marks
  • Some are harmful
    • Sickle Cell Anemia
    • Down Syndrome
  • Some are beneficial
    • Sickle Cell Anemia to Malaria
    • Immunity to HIV
what causes mutations
What Causes Mutations?
  • There are two ways in which DNA can become mutated:
    • Mutations can be inherited.
      • Parent to child
    • Mutations can be acquired.
      • Environmental damage
      • Mistakes when DNA is copied
chromosome mutations10
Chromosome Mutations
  • Down Syndrome
    • Chromosome 21 does not separate correctly.
    • They have 47 chromosomes in stead of 46.
    • Children with Down Syndrome develop slower, may have heart and stomach illnesses and vary greatly in their degree of inteligence.
chromosome mutations11
Chromosome Mutations
  • Cri-du-chat
    • Deletion of material on 5th chromosome
    • Characterized by the cat-like cry made by cri-du-chat babies
    • Varied levels of metal handicaps
sex chromosome abnormalities
Sex Chromosome Abnormalities
  • Klinefelter’s Syndrome
    • XXY, XXYY, XXXY
    • Male
    • Sterility
    • Small testicles
    • Breast enlargement
sex chromosome abnormalities13
Sex Chromosome Abnormalities
  • XYY Syndrome
    • Normal male traits
    • Often tall and thin
    • Associated with antisocial and behavioral problems
sex chromosome mutations
Sex Chromosome Mutations
  • Turner’s Syndrome
    • X
    • Female
    • sex organs don't mature at adolescence
    • sterility
    • short stature
sex chromosome mutations15
Sex Chromosome Mutations
  • XXX
    • Trisomy X
    • Female
    • Little or no visible differences
    • tall stature
    • learning disabilities
    • limited fertility