doing right things ethics and decision making in human organizations l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Doing Right Things: Ethics and Decision Making in Human Organizations PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Doing Right Things: Ethics and Decision Making in Human Organizations

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 73

Doing Right Things: Ethics and Decision Making in Human Organizations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 225 Views
  • Uploaded on

Doing Right Things: Ethics and Decision Making in Human Organizations. MPA 8002 The Structure and Theory of Human Organization Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D. THE CHALLENGE OF ETHICS.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Doing Right Things: Ethics and Decision Making in Human Organizations' - Jimmy


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
doing right things ethics and decision making in human organizations

Doing Right Things:Ethics and Decision Making in Human Organizations

MPA 8002

The Structure and Theory

of Human Organization

Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D.

slide2

THE CHALLENGE OF ETHICS

For generations, managers and leaders have wondered not only about what they might do when confronted by particularly troublesome dilemmas in their organizations. Sensing their responsibility to make things better, these women and men have also struggled to do what they believe and hope is the right thing to do.

slide3
the concept of ethics...

…assumes that there exist

norms

principles

values

...that have, are, and always will provide the foundation for a good life

slide4
these norms, principles, and values do not come from a religious, moral, political, or social source...

…but are the product of rational reflection upon human existence

…and exist independent of any religious, moral, political, or social system (i.e., are universally true)

slide5
these norms, principles, and values are normative for decision making...

…while they do not specify what the decision should be

…they do provide a principled framework to engage in making good decisions

…for which managers and leaders bear responsibility

some basic ethical principles
Some basic ethical principles...
  • mutuality
  • generalizability
  • caring
  • respect
  • honesty
slide7
mutuality:

Are all parties operating under the same understanding of the rules of engagement?

slide8
generalizability:

Does a specific action follow a principle of conduct that is applicable to all comparable situations?

slide9
caring:

Does this action evidence authentic concern for the legitimate interests of others?

slide10
respect:

Does this action demonstrate due consideration for the dignity and rights of others?

slide11
honesty:

Is this decision and the process leading to it straight-forward and forthright?

slide12
Although these basic principles constitute the fundamental elements embedded in an ethical decision...

…these principles do not provide a comprehensive ethical framework...

…for use when managers and leaders engage in the decision-making process.

an executive ethical decision making process barnard 1968
An executive ethical decision-making process (Barnard,1968)...

1. Recognize that people come to organizations with personal motives.

2. Direct efforts to induce cooperation towards a common effort.

3. Uphold the organizational purpose.

4. Design impersonal goals that translate the organization’s purpose into meaningful projects.

questions for ethical decision making lax sebenius 1986
Questions for ethical decision making (Lax & Sebenius, 1986)...
  • Are the rules understood and accepted?

…in poker, for example, bluffing is a defined part of the game

slide15

Is the decision defensible under tough scrutiny in the public forum?

…it is highly probable that an important decision will be “spun” in ways that distort what managers and leaders intend

slide16

Would you want someone to make the very same decision...

…if it impacted you?

…if it impacted members of your family?

slide17

Should everybody act this way?

…should children be trained to act this way?

…should people in organizations behave this way?

…should society be organized this way?

slide18

What are the alternatives?

…what are the pro’s and con’s associated with each alternative?

…can differences be negotiated so that the decision rests on a firmer ethical ground?

ethics is inquiry into the right thing and acting conversant with it
Ethics is “inquiry into the right thing” and acting conversant with it...

When managers and leaders endeavor to inquire into the right thing...

…“we are inquiring not in order to know what virtue is but in order to become good”

…neither “to fall under any art or precept… but to consider what is appropriate to the occasion” (Aristotle, Ethics II.2, p. 183)

a paradigm for ethical decision making aristotle ethics iii 2 5
A paradigm for ethical decision making (Aristotle,Ethics III.2-5)...
  • quantitative and qualitative factual data that describe “what is truly the case”

knowledge of the good

  • abstract, theoretical concepts identifying “the truly good”

For managers and leaders, the primary sources of knowledge are research and experience.

slide21

technical skills

techniques that foster the good

  • repertoires honed through experience

For managers and leaders, techniques are learned in formal and informal apprenticeships where reflection on practice facilitates the development of expertise.

slide22

In light of what the good requires:

  • deliberation concerning the facts and ideas of this case

practice

  • deliberation concerning the techniques that will foster the good
aristotle s ethical decision making paradigm
Aristotle’s ethical decision-making paradigm...

ideas concerning what is good, proper, and just

knowledge

a practical judgment about what must be done in this situation, given what theory and best practice suggest

practice

discrete skills to achieve what is good, proper, and just

techniques

for aristotle ethical practice is not
For Aristotle, ethical practice is not...
  • dictating to others what the good is and what they ought to do
  • mindlessly enacting routines inculcated in training programs
for aristotle ethical practice is
For Aristotle, ethical practice is...
  • being deliberate by integrating a rational principle with a proven technique through discursive thought (ratiocination)
  • responding:
  • to the right person
  • at the right time
  • to the right extent
  • in the right way
slide26
and, thus...
  • evidencing a virtuous character revealed in practical wisdom when making decisions
  • bearing responsibility for the choices made
  • inculcating virtue throughout the organization as a shared purpose
slide27
For Aristotle, then, it is not so much what managers or leaders do that is crucial for ethical decision making...

...what is crucial is why managers or leaders do what they do

...and the quality of character revealed in very practical decisions.

slide28

“…that is not for everyone, nor is it easy; wherefore goodness is both rare and laudable and noble.”

Aristotle, Ethics, II.9

seven ethical virtues
Seven ethical virtues...
  • courage
  • anger
  • liberality
  • truth
  • magnificence
  • indignation
  • pride
slide30

COURAGE

…the quality of being fearless or brave when facing and dealing with anything recognized as dangerous, difficult, or painful

slide31

LIBERALITY

…the noble quality whereby one is generous in thought and evidences the absence of prejudice and partiality when considering substantive matters

slide32

MAGNIFICENCE

…the condition or quality of grandeur, splendor, and glory uplifting the human spirit

slide33

PRIDE

…the quality, state, and behavior evidencing an accurate perception of one’s dignity and worth

slide34

ANGER

…the feeling engendered by a real or supposed injury for which one seeks satisfaction

slide35

TRUTH

…the quality or state of sincerity, genuineness, honesty, trustworthiness, and loyalty emerging when one acts in accord with verified experience, facts, or reality

slide36

INDIGNATION

…the contempt, disgust, and abhorrence caused by the disapproval of something mean, disgraceful, or unjust

aristotle s theory of the golden mean
Aristotle’s theory of the “Golden Mean”...
  • A virtue is a mean, delicate to achieve...

…found somewhere between an excess (a positive vice)

…and a deficiency (a negative vice)

…which reflects the true character of the person making the decision

slide38

Manager/Leader Virtue:

COURAGE

confidence

fear

as a virtue:

a “golden mean”

as a vice:

a defect

as a vice:

an excess

slide39
Courage, then, is virtuous when it is a practical judgment of the intellect wherein the defect of paralyzing fear and the excess of exuberant confidence are balanced as managers/leaders act rightly.
slide40

Manager/Leader Virtue:

LIBERALITY

prodigality

meanness

as a virtue:

a “golden mean”

as a vice:

a defect

as a vice:

an excess

slide41
Liberality, then, is virtuous when it is a practical judgment of the intellect wherein the defect of meanness and the excess of prodigality are balanced as managers/leaders act rightly.
slide42

Manager/Leader Virtue:

MAGNIFICENCE

vulgarity

niggardliness

as a virtue:

a “golden mean”

as a vice:

a defect

as a vice:

an excess

slide43
Magnificence, then, is virtuous when it is a practical judgment of the intellect wherein the defect of niggardliness and the excess of vulgarity are balanced as managers/leaders act rightly.
slide44

Manager/Leader Virtue:

PRIDE

vanity

humility

as a virtue:

a “golden mean”

as a vice:

a defect

as a vice:

an excess

slide45
Pride, then, is virtuous when it is a practical judgment of the intellect wherein the defect of humility and the excess of vanity are balanced as managers/leaders act rightly.
slide46

Manager/Leader Virtue:

ANGER

irascibility

equanimity

as a virtue:

a “golden mean”

as a vice:

a defect

as a vice:

an excess

slide47
Anger, then, is virtuous when it is a practical judgment of the intellect wherein the defect of equanimity and the excess of irascibility are balanced as managers/leaders act rightly.
slide48

Manager/Leader Virtue:

TRUTH

boasting

modesty

as a virtue:

a “golden mean”

as a vice:

a defect

as a vice:

an excess

slide49
Truth, then, is virtuous when it is a practical judgment of the intellect wherein the defect of modesty and the excess of envy are balanced as managers/leaders act rightly.
slide50

Manager/Leader Virtue:

INDIGNATION

envy

spite

as a virtue:

a “golden mean”

as a vice:

a defect

as a vice:

an excess

slide51
Indignation, then, is virtuous when it is a practical judgment of the intellect wherein the defect of spite and the excess of envy are balanced as managers/leaders act rightly.
a virtue based process of ethical decision making
A virtue-based process of ethical decision making...
  • Enables managers and leaders...

...to stand for something when people prefer that managers and leaders stand for everything

...to do right things when people prefer that managers and leaders do things right

integrating reflective practice and ethical decision making
Integrating reflective practice and ethical decision making...
  • Reflective practice and ethical decision making require intellectual exercise and discipline

…reflective practice focuses upon practice episodes to ascertain how one’s beliefs and assumptions as well as one’s background and experiences impact organizational functioning

...ethical decision making endeavors to promote the good amidst conflicting and contradictory choices

the concept
The concept...
  • reflective practice

…the intellectual exercise through which managers and leaders focus upon events in order to ascertain how one’s beliefs and assumptions as well as one’s background and experiences impact organizational functioning

Reflective practice inculcates the intellectual discipline needed to discern “what is” in practice episodes as well as to engage in the self-growth necessary if one is to manage and lead others.

reflective practice
Reflective practice...
  • is constructed on the reality that professional knowledge is different from scientific knowledge
  • accounts for the fact that there are no infallibly efficacious theories or skills to manage and lead human organizations

Reflective practice requires managers and leaders to confront ill-defined, unique, and changing problems as managers and leaders decide on courses of action.

the reflective practice model
The reflective practice model...

antecedents

theories of practice

practice episodes

cultural milieu

mindscapes

intentions

theoretical knowledge

action platforms

actions

realities

craft knowledge

self knowledge

critical knowledge

slide57
ethical decision making

…the intellectual exercise through which managers and leaders render practical judgments of the intellect about what ought to be the case, given what is, so as to promote the good

Ethical decision making inculcates the virtues needed for managers and leaders to engage others in a collaborative toward attaining what ought to be the case.

aristotle s ethical decision making paradigm58
Aristotle’s ethical decision-making paradigm...

ideas concerning what is good, proper, and just

knowledge

a practical judgment about what must be done in this situation, given what theory and best practice suggest

practice

discrete skills to achieve what is good, proper, and just

techniques

reframing ethical decision making
Reframing ethical decision making...
  • Reframingethical decision making requires intellectual exercise and discipline
  • Reframing uses metaphors to focus upon organizations in order to ascertain how various beliefs and assumptions as well as backgrounds and experiences impact organizational functioning
  • Ethical decision making navigates a pathway toward the good amidst the conflicting and contradictory choices available
using ethical decision making
Using ethical decision making...

…virtuous

…reflective

effective managers and leaders are

…wise

…decisive

…“what ought to be” given “what is”

whose primary concerns are

…doing right things

…balancing the common and collective good

abusing ethical decision making
Abusing ethical decision making...

…implement ideas mindlessly

ineffective managers and leaders

…deny responsibility

…point the finger of blame at others

…doing things right

whose primary concerns are

…self-protection

…one’s desires and wishes

ethical decision making
Ethical decision making...

…is not a learned behavior or lifestyle worn like a set of clothes, but...

seeking constantly to do what is right and necessary in the system

 a matter of focus:

devoting inordinate amounts of time to doing right things

a matter of time:

putting one’s whole psyche, energy, and conviction into it

a matter of feeling:

this module has focused on
This module has focused on...

ethical decision making and how managers and leaders can utilize it in practice episodes...

slide68

ETHICAL DECISION MAKING

“By acting virtuously in our transactions with other human beings we become virtuous or unvirtuous. The states of character arise out of activity. It makes no small difference, then, whether we form habits of one kind or another from our very youth; it makes a great difference, or rather, all the difference.”

Aristotle, Ethics, II.1, p. 183

slide69
Although existing in a pluralistic and secular world, organizations cannot impose a particular religious, moral, political, or social ethical framework upon employees...

…managers and leaders, however, can and should make their purpose clear, hold subordinates accountable, and engage them in dialogue about the ethical choices that arise in practice.

slide70
The outcome of ethical practice is the gradual transformation of an impersonal workplace into a viable community of people...

...who respect and recognize in one another the virtues that make being human and contributing to a cooperative endeavor meaningful.

Work, then, is not simply “a job” but an opportunity to learn about and engage in living a truly good life.

the next module will focus on
The next module will focus on...

scenario building

for successful organizational change

...and how managers and leaders use frame analysis to forge a pathway that improves organizational functioning.

references
References
  • Aristotle. (1958). The Nicomachean ethics (W. D. Ross, Trans.). In J. D. Kaplan (Ed.), The pocket Aristotle (pp. 158-274). New York: Simon & Schuster.
  • Barnard, C. I. (1938/1968). The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (1997). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership (2nd edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Etzioni, A. (1975). A comparative analysis of complex organizations. New York: Free Press.
references73
References
  • Lax, D. A., & Sebenius, J. K. (1986). The manager as negotiator. New York: Free Press.
  • Sergiovanni, T. J. (1989). Informing professional practice in educational administration. Journal of Educational Administration, 27(2), p. 186.