Layout of the project of cotton textile industry of Pakistan. • Location • Feasibility of locations • Raw material • Processes • Output[products] • Uses of products • Problems faced by the industry • Problems faced by the people, environment, economy • Question bank[2000-2007] Source: www.google.com www.cleo.net.uk
Locations of cotton Textile Industries • BADIN • SANGHAR • NAWABSHAH • RAHIM YAR KHAN • BAHALWALPUR • MULTAN • MUZZAFFARGARH • KHANEWAL • SAHIWAL • BAHALWALNAGAR • VEHARI
Faisalabad as the second most favorable textile centre in Pakistan. Karachi as the largest cotton textile centre in Pakistan.
Raw material Raw material is any unprocessed natural product used in manufacture of any consumer good. In the case of cotton, raw cotton is the main raw material.
Process: At the textile mill, the bales are opened by machines, and the lint is mixed and cleaned further by blowing and beating. The short lint that comes out usually is separated and sold for use in other industries
Spinning The spinning devices take fibers from the sliver and rotate it up to 2,500 revolutions in a second twist that makes fibers into a yarn for weaving or knitting into fabrics.
Weaving and knitting: Machines called looms weave cotton yarns into fabrics the same way the first hand weaving frames did. Modern looms work at great speeds. Until 1830 most weaving was done by hand on a wooden loom After 1830 the power loom was used in factories to weave cloth. Power loom Hand weaving frames knitting
Final checking: Folding Machines After the weaving is complete, the fabric is taken to the checking department where it is checked and mended if necessary. After the fabric has been woven and checked thoroughly, it is folded by folding machines . Finishing Finishing processes included dyeing, bleaching and printing. Some cotton goods are made by cotton manufacturers themselves.
By products: • The cottonseed which remains after the cotton is ginned, is used to produce cottonseed oil, which after refining can be consumed by humans like any other vegetable oil. • The cottonseed meal that is left, is generally fed to livestock. • Cotton linters are fine, silky fibers which adhere to the seeds of the cotton plant after ginning. These curly fibers are typically less than 1/8in, 3mm long. Linters are traditionally used in the manufacture of paper and as a raw material in the manufacture of cellulose Lint Seeds
Products Cotton is used to make a number of textile products. These include terrycloth, used to make highly absorbent bath towels and robes; denim, used to make blue jeans; chambray popularly used in the manufacture of blue work shirts and corduroy, seersucker, and cotton twill. Socks and most T-shirts are made from cotton. Bed sheets are often made from cotton. Cotton is also used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting. While many fabrics are made completely of cotton, some materials blend cotton with other fibers, including rayon and synthetic fibers such as polyester.
Cotton Fabric Bags
Economic Problems • In order to meet the increasing demand of cotton, cotton has to be imported and due to which a huge amount of foreign exchange has to be spent to import cotton. • If cotton is destroyed by a lot of pests then local market and the export of cotton will be effected and Pakistan will be short of revenue. • if cotton is destroyed because of alot of pests, this means that there would be a decrease in the crop yield and then export of cotton is dropped and the cotton industry is at a loss. It will have to invest more money to grow new crops which is a burden on the economy. Some cotton pests
Problems faced by the people: • Cotton is the top crop consuming around 85 % of applied pesticides. • Heavy consumption of pesticides and poor irrigation practices turn the fields barren- contaminated with salt and pesticides. • Drinking water pollution, childhood illness including blood diseases and birth defects are observed. • Cotton textile workers have an increased prevalence of both obstructive and restrictive lung function patterns when compared to control subjects. • Secondary pest outbreaks, ecosystem imbalance and crop failure are some other side effects.The experience of undesired effects from the application of pesticides in cotton field had been a global reality. A full-time farm worker since the age of seven, Matthews is all too familiar with the effects of pesticides. In a single day's work with plants saturated in heavy chemicals, Matthews has lost her finger and toenails.
Question bank b)1) Explain why Karachi is the largest cotton textile manufacturing center in Pakistan.  2) Two of the three main cotton textile manufacturing centers of Pakistan are situated within areas which grow cotton. Name one of these centers.  3)Quetta is a ‘market-oriented’ cotton textile manufacturing center.what does this mean?  c)1)Compare transport by road and rail for raw cotton from the farms to where it is processesed within Pakistan.