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EU-ARTECH Workshop on Seventeenth Century Northern European Paintings Techniques 12th December 2005. Contribution to the study of grounds of Flemish paintings on canvas from 1600 to 1650. Elisabeth MARTIN and Myriam EVENO Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France - PARIS.

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contribution to the study of grounds of flemish paintings on canvas from 1600 to 1650

EU-ARTECH Workshop on Seventeenth Century Northern European Paintings Techniques

12th December 2005

Contribution to the study of grounds of Flemish paintings on canvas from 1600 to 1650

Elisabeth MARTIN and Myriam EVENO

Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France - PARIS

slide2

Introduction

  • French-Flemish cultural area : north of the Loire to the Flandres : panel ground with chalk and glue
  • Transition between white and coloured grounds in France for canvas paintings : 1620 -1630
  • What about canvas Flemish painting from the first half of the XVIIth century ?

Snyders – Nature morte - Amiens

Rubens - Descente de croix – Valenciennes

slide3
Flemish paintings on canvas from French collections
    • Lille 2004 Exhibition - “ Rubens “ (Techne 2005)
    • deployment of the Louvre collections in 1994
  • Little publications from this period
  • 34 works executed by 13 painters from Antwerp
    • Rubens (11 paintings)
    • Jordaens (9 paintings)
    • The others painters (one or two paintings )

Snyders, Van Dyck, Seghers, de Crayer…

  • Technical
    • Cross-sections have been analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDS
    • Medium of some samples have been analyzed by IRTF and GC-MS
rubens pierre paul 1577 1640
RUBENS Pierre-Paul (1577-1640)
  • 1615-1620 :
    • La Descente de Croix – Lille – for the church of convent “des Capucins”
    • St François recevant l’Enfant Jésus des mains de la Vierge – Lille for the church of convent “des Capucins”
    • Saint François en extase – (atelier) – Lille
  • L’adoration des bergers – Cathédrale de Soissons
  • St Dominique et St François d'Assise préservant le monde de la colère du du Christ - Lyon- for“ St-Paul-des-Domicains ” from Antwerp
  • 1615 ?
    • Ixion roi des Lapithes, trompé par Junon – Paris – Louvre
  • 1622-1623 :
    • La Descente de croix – Valenciennes – for the church “St Géry”
  • 1622-25 : for“ Palais du Luxembourg - Paris ”
    • Marie de Médicis en Bellone – Paris – Louvre
    • La Reine s’enfuit du château de Blois – Paris – Louvre
  • 1626-1629 :
    • L’adoration des Mages – Paris – Louvre –
  • ?Thomyris, reine des scythes– Paris – Louvre
rubens lower layer white yellowish
RUBENS Lower layer - white yellowish
  • Chalk
    • La Descente de Croix – Lille
      • Medium : oil
    • St François en extase
    • L’adoration des Bergers
    • La Reine s’enfuit de Blois
    • L’adoration des Mages
    • Marie de Médicis en Bellone

BSE image

  • Chalk with very little white lead
    • St François recevant l’Enfant Jésus des mains de la Vierge
    • St Dominique et St François d'Assise
rubens lower layer slightly coloured
RUBENS Lower layer slightly coloured
  • Chalk, a small amount of white lead, earth pigment and charcoal black
    • Descente de croix – Valenciennes
  • Calcium carbonate, white lead, and differents pigments « pincelier »
    • Ixion roi des Lapithes, trompé par Junon

Pierre Le Brun 1636 : “Recueil des essais des merveilles de la peinture”

slide7

RUBENS Upper layer - grey

  • White lead, a small amount of calcium carbonate and charcoal black
    • Descente de croix –

Valenciennes

  • White lead, calcium carbonate, lamp black
    • Marie de Médicis en Bellone –
  • White lead, calcium carbonate, charcoal black
    • Thomyris, reine des scythes…
rubens
RUBENS

St François recevant l’Enfant Jésus des mains de la Vierge – Lille - (enlargement by Rubens)

  • chalk with a small amount of lead
  • white lead with little calcium carbonate
  • Under drawing

XRay radiograph

jacob jordaens 1593 1678
Jacob JORDAENS – (1593-1678)
  • about 1620
    • Saint Thomas et deux apôtres – Lille
    • Saint Jean l’Evangéliste et deux apôtres - Lille
  • 1640 For his residence
    • Les signes du zodiaque – les poissons – Paris– Palais du Sénat
    • Les signes du zodiaque – la balance – Paris– Palais du Sénat
  • about 1650
    • Le repos de Diane – Paris– Louvre
    • L’adoration des bergers – Paris– Louvre
    • L’arrestation du Christ - Valenciennes
  • 1653
    • Le jugement dernier – Paris– Louvre
  • Attributed to Jordaens :
    • Connais-toi toi-même - La jeunesse entre le vice et la vertu – Saint-Brieuc
jordaens
Jordaens

Connais-toi toi-même - La jeunesse entre le vice et la vertu – Saint-Brieuc

L’arrestation du Christ - Valenciennes

jordaens11
Jordaens
  • Upper layer : grey

white lead andcharcoal black

except for the last painting :

    • L’arrestation du Christ
    • Le jugement dernier
  • Lower layer - white-yellowish

chalk

    • Saint Thomas et deux apôtres
    • Saint Jean et deux apôtres
    • Le repos de Diane
    • L’adoration des bergers
    • Le jugement dernier
jordaens12
Jordaens
  • Lower layer - slightly coloured
  • chalk, little white lead, and different pigments « pincelier »
    • Les signes du zodiaque – les poissons
    • Les signes du zodiaque – la balance
    • L’arrestation du Christ –
  • Lower layer - grey
  • White lead, some earth pigments, charcoal black
    • Connais-toi toi-même - La jeunesse entre le vice et la vertu – Attr. to Joardens
the others painters
The others painters
  • Upper layer : grey

white lead, and charcoal black and sometimes calcium carbonate

  • Lower layer : white-yellowish -

chalk

    • Pieter Brueghel II(Attri. à)(1564- 1638) Adoration des Mages- Salins
    • Joos de Momper (1564-1635) Paysage montagneux avec un pont et quatre cavaliers – Paris- Louvre
    • Anton Van Dyck(1599-1641)Saint Sébastien secouru par les anges – (early work) – Paris- Louvre
    • Theodoor Van Thulden (1606-1669) Le Christ ressuscité apparaissant à la Vierge Louvre - Jesuit church in Bruges. About 1660
slide14
Lower layer : white-yellowish-

chalk and little white lead

    • Gasper de Crayer (1584-1669) Le martyre de Sainte Catherine – Grenoble -1620-1625
  • Lower layer : slightly coloured- chalk and some grain of minium
    • Gasper de CrayerLe Christ en croix entre Sainte Madeleine etSaint François – Paris - Louvre
      • Medium : oil
slide15

Chalk with little earth pigment and little white lead

    • Gerard Seghers (1591- 1651)St François d'Assise réconforté par les anges après sa stigmatisation – (1620-1624) Louvre –Paris
      • Medium : oil

Lower layer : slightly coloured

  • Chalk with a little earth pigment
    • Hendrik de Clerck (1570-1630) Diane découvrant la grossesse de Callisto -Louvre
  • Chalk with different pigments “pincelier”
    • Jan Fyt (1611-1661) Gibier et corbeille de raisin observés par un chat - Louvre
  • Chalk with charcoal black
    • Anonymous(sometimes Philippe de Champaigne’s early work) Portrait from François van der Buch -Cambrai
coloured grounds
coloured grounds
  • Frans Snyders (1579-1657) :
    • Nature morte - Amiens
    • Trois chiens dans un garde-manger – Louvre

– red - orange:chalk and ochre

      • Medium : oil
  • Paul de Vos (1595-1678) L’entrée des animaux dans l’arche de Noé – Paris - Louvre
    • First layer yellow-orange :chalk, ochre
coloured grounds17
coloured grounds

Anton Van Dyck (1599-1641)

Le Christ en croix - Lille, about 1628 For the convent “des Récollets”

  • Red lower layer : chalk, little white lead, red ochre
    • Medium : oil
conclusion
conclusion
  • White grounds persisted for a long time-
    • Van Thulden 1660, Jordaens 1653,
    • Saint Dominique et Saint François (Rubens) enlargement : 1670
    • Chalk with oil (with protein ?, Conversion de Saint Bavon IRPA 1999), sometimes with white lead,
    • Chalk with different pigments ; «  pincelier »
  • Coloured grounds
    • Rubens

(Italy 1600-1608)

LaTransfiguration - Nancy - for Mantoue

England (1629) Peace and War (NGTB 1999)

  • Frans Snyders, Paul De Vos
  • Anton Van Dyck

Le Christ en croix, about 1628

red ground – French influence ?

(Le Golgotha, about 1630, Church of Malines, chalk ground IRPA 2001-02)

slide19
Turquet de Mayernemanuscript from 1620-1646Pictoria sculptoria et quae subalternarum artium spectantia
  • Colored grounds
    • English brown red, yellow ochre, bolus, umber, charcoal black
    • white lead with English brown red, yellow ochre, bolus, umber, charcoal black
  • Why aren’t white chalk grounds mentioned ?
    • Manuscript written at Charles I court : English techniques ?
    • Manuscript does not refer to canvas purchased with grounds already applied ? (Van Hout, Leiden, 1998)
slide20
Remerciements :
    • GC-MS : Juliette Langlois and Martine Regert
    • IRTF : Anne-Solenn Le Hô
    • MEB-EDS : Eric Laval