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Human Urogenital System

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Human Urogenital System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Human Urogenital System. Urogenital System Functions. Filtering of blood, Removal of wastes and metabolites Regulation of blood volume and composition concentration of blood solutes pH of extracellular fluid blood cell synthesis Synthesis of Vitamin D Reproduction and sexual function.

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Presentation Transcript
urogenital system functions
Urogenital System Functions
  • Filtering of blood, Removal of wastes and metabolites
  • Regulation of
    • blood volume and composition
    • concentration of blood solutes
    • pH of extracellular fluid
    • blood cell synthesis
  • Synthesis of Vitamin D
  • Reproduction and sexual function
location and external anatomy of kidneys
Location

Lie behind peritoneum on posterior abdominal wall on either side of vertebral column

Lumbar vertebrae and rib cage partially protect

Right kidney slightly lower than left

External Anatomy

Renal capsule

Surrounds each kidney

Perirenal fat

Engulfs renal capsule and acts as cushioning and source of energy

Renal fascia

Anchors kidneys to abdominal wall, separates from abdomen

Hilum

Renal artery and nerves enter and renal vein and ureter exit kidneys

Location and External Anatomyof Kidneys
internal anatomy of kidneys
Internal Anatomy of Kidneys
  • Cortex: Outer area
    • Renal columns
  • Medulla: Inner area
    • Renal pyramids
  • Calyces
    • Major: Converge to form pelvis
    • Minor: Papillae extend
  • Nephron:Functional unit of kidney
    • Juxtamedullary
    • Cortical
internal anatomy of kidneys8
Renal corpuscle

Bowman’s or Renal capsule

Parietal layer

Visceral layer

Glomerulus

Network of capillaries goes into another capillary bed called the peritubular Capillaries

- Arterioles

Afferent

Blood to glomerulus

Efferent

Drains not into veinule but another arteriole

Tubules

Proximal (convoluted) tubule

Loops of Henle

Descending limb

Ascending limb

Distal (convoluted) tubules

Collecting ducts

Internal Anatomy of Kidneys
ureters and urinary bladder
Ureters

Tubes through which urine flows from kidneys to urinary bladder

Urinary bladder

Stores urine

Urethra

Transports urine from bladder to outside of body

Difference in length between males and females

Sphincters

Internal urinary

External urinary

Ureters and Urinary Bladder
filtration
Filtration

Renal filtrate

Plasma minus blood cells and blood proteins

Most (99%) reabsorbed

Filtration membrane

Fenestrated endothelium, basement membrane and pores formed by podocytes

Filtration pressure

Responsible for filtrate formation

Glomerular capillary pressure (GCP) minus capsule pressure (CP) minus colloid osmotic pressure (COP)

Changes caused by glomerular capillary pressure

Filtration

EFP = GCP – CP – COP

Where Effective filtration pressure = EFP

tubular reabsorption
Reabsorption almost 90% takes place in Proximal tubule via

Passive transport

Active transport

Cotransport

Specialization of tubule segments

Distal tubule and collecting duct affected by hormones like ADH & Aldosterone

Substances transported

Active transport moves Na+ across nephron wall

Other ions and molecules moved by cotransport

Passive transport moves water, urea, lipid-soluble, nonpolar compounds

Tubular Reabsorption
tubular secretion
Tubular Secretion
  • Substances enter proximal or distal tubules and collecting ducts
  • H+, K+ and some substances not produced in body are secreted by countertransport mechanisms
urine production
In Proximal tubules

Na+ and other substances removed

Water follows passively

Filtrate volume reduced

In descending limb of loop of Henle

Water exits passively, solute enters

Filtrate volume reduced 15%

In ascending limb of loop of Henle

Na+, Cl-, K+ transported out of filtrate

Water remains

In distal tubules and collecting ducts

Water movement out regulated by ADH

If absent, water not reabsorbed and dilute urine produced

If ADH present, water moves out, concentrated urine produced

Urine Production
urine concentration mechanism
When large volume of water consumed

Eliminate excess without losing large amounts of electrolytes

Response is kidneys produce large volume of dilute urine

When drinking water not available

Kidneys produce small volume of concentrated urine

Removes waste and prevents rapid dehydration

Urine Concentration Mechanism
hormonal mechanisms
ADH

Secreted by posterior pituitary

Increases water permeability in distal tubules and collecting ducts

Aldosterone

Produced in adrenal cortex

Affects Na+ and Cl- transport in nephron and collecting ducts

Renin

Produced by kidneys, causes production of angiotensin II

Atrial natriuretic hormone

Produced by heart when blood pressure increases

Inhibits ADH production

Reduces ability of kidney to concentrate urine

Hormonal Mechanisms
autoregulation and sympathetic stimulation
Autoregulation

Involves changes in degree of constriction in afferent arterioles

As systemic BP increased, afferent arterioles constrict and prevent increase in renal blood flow

Sympathetic stimulation

Constricts small arteries and afferent arterioles

Decreases renal blood flow

Autoregulation and Sympathetic Stimulation
clearance and tubular load
Plasma clearance

Volume of plasma cleared of a specific substance each minute

Used to estimate GFR

Used to calculate renal plasma flow

Used to determine which drugs or other substances excreted by kidney

Tubular load

Total amount of substance that passes through filtration membrane into nephrons each minute

Normally glucose is almost completed reabsorbed

Clearance and Tubular Load
tubular maximum
Tubular Maximum
  • Tubular maximum
    • Maximum rate at which a substance can be actively absorbed
    • Each substance has its own tubular maximum
urine flow and micturition reflex
Urine flow

Hydrostatic pressure forces urine through nephron

Peristalsis moves urine through ureters

Micturition reflex

Stretch of urinary bladder stimulates reflex causing bladder to contract, inhibiting urinary sphincters

Higher brain centers can stimulate or inhibit reflex

Urine Flow and Micturition Reflex
effects of aging on kidneys
Effects of Aging on Kidneys
  • Gradual decrease in size of kidney
    • Decrease in kidney size leads to decrease in renal blood flow
  • Decrease in number of functional nephrons
  • Decrease in renin secretion and vitamin D synthesis
  • Decline in ability of nephron to secrete and absorb
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