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240-492 Games Programming with Java

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  1. 240-492Games Programming with Java Montri Karnjanadecha Andrew Davison 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  2. Chapter 1Introduction to Game Programming 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  3. Outline • What is a game? • Why do people play games? • Taxonomy of computer games • The computer as a game technology • The game design sequence • Design techniques and ideas • The future of computer games Reference: http://www.erasmatazz.com/free/AoCGD.pdf 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  4. What is a Game? • Board games • Card games • Athletic games • Children’s games • Computer games 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  5. Board Games • Consists of playing surface divided into sectors populated by a set of movable pieces • The pieces are directly related to players • Playing surface represents an environment • Players maneuver their pieces across the playing surface to: • capture other player’s pieces • reach an objective • gain control of territory • etc. 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  6. Card Games • Utilize a set of 52 symbols generated from 2 factors: • Rank (13 values) • Suit (4 values) • Revolve around combinations built from these two factors • Each legal combination is assigned a victory value • The player’s primary concern is the analysis of combinations 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  7. Athletic Games • Emphasize physical more than mental prowess • Skillful use of the body is the primary concern • Athletic games vs athletic competitions • A race is a competition • An athletic game is a competition with interaction between players. 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  8. Children’s Games • Group activities emphasizing simple physical play • The player’s primary concern is the use of social skills • Examples • Hide and Seek • Red Rover • Tag • Kick the Can 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  9. Computer Games • Played on 5 types of computers • expensive dedicated machines (arcade) • inexpensive dedicated machines (handheld) • multi program home games (Nintendo, Play Station) • persona; computers • large mainframe computers • Computer acts as opponent and referee • Skill & Action (emphasizing hand eye coordination) 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  10. Computer Games (cont’d) • These S&A games are frequently violent in nature • Areas of computer games: • adventure games • fantasy role playing games • war games 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  11. Games’ Common Elements • Representation • A game subjectively represents a subset of reality • Interaction • Games provide interactive elements. • Conflict • Arises naturally from the interaction in a game • Game agent attempts to block the player to reach his goal • Safty • Games provide save way to experience reality 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  12. Games vs Simulations • Simulation • serious attempt to accurately represent a real phenomenon • created for evaluative purposes • Game • artistically simplified representation of a phenomenon • created for entertainment purposes • small simulation lacking the degree of detail • Flight Simulator vs RED BARON 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  13. Games vs Puzzles • Cube puzzle vs Tic Tac Toe • High jumping vs Basket ball • Cube puzzle does not respond to the moves • High jump pole does not react to the jumper’s effort • Basket ball & Tic Tac Toe: opposing player acknowledge and respond to the player’s action 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  14. Games vs Toys vs Stories • Games • allow player to manipulate facts but rules remain fixed • indirect contact of audience experience • to be experienced many times • Toys • user is free to manipulate the toy • no control to user experience • Stories • audiences don’t have control of facts presented • to be experienced once 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  15. Why do People Play Games? • To learn (need not be conscious) • Fantasy/Exploration (example of Disney Land) • Nose-Thumbing (violent, socially unacceptable) • Proving oneself (high score) • Social lubrication (card games, board games) • exercise (mental and/or physical) • need for acknowledgement 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  16. Enjoyment Factors • Game play • Graphics • Color • Animation • Sound Reality 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  17. Skill&Action Games (emphasize motor skills) Combat games Maze games Sport games Paddle games Race games Miscellaneous games Strategy Games (emphasize cognition skills) Adventures D&D games War games Games of chance Educational games Children’s games Interpersonal games A Taxonomy of Computer Games 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  18. Combat Games • Present a direct and violent confrontation • The player must destroy the bad guys • The player must avoid being hit • Examples • Start Raiders • Spacewar • Asteroids • Missile Command • Space Invaders • Battlezone 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  19. Maze Games • Maze of paths through which the player must move • Avoiding or destroying the bad guys • The player may make his way to an exit • Example • Pac-Man 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  20. Sport Games • Model popular sport games • Examples • football • basket ball • snooker 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  21. Paddle Games • Intercepting a projectile with a paddle-controlled piece • Easy to develop • Examples • Pong • Breakout • Warlords • Chicken 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  22. Race Games • Examples • Downhill • Match Racer • Night Driver • Test Drive • Dog Daze 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  23. Adventures • Closer to puzzles than games • moving through a complex world • collecting tools • finding treasure or goal • Examples • Adventure • The Wizard and the Princes • Time Zone • Deadline 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  24. Game of Chance • Easy to Program • Example • Blackjack 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  25. Educational and Children’s Games • Designed with explicit educational goals • Examples • Hang Man • Mammurabi • Lunar Lander • Rockey’s Boots 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  26. The Computer as Game Technology • responding to the human player • acting as game referee • providing Real-time play • providing intelligent opponent • limiting information to the player • utilizing data transfer over communication line • Limited I/O capability and single-user orientation are major weaknesses 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  27. Design Concepts • Go with the grain • Don’t force the machine to do perform tasks for which it is not well-suited • Recgrids vs Hexgrids • Don’t transplant • A game that succeeds in one technology may not succeed in other technologies • Design around the I/O • carefully consider what can and cannot be display and what can and cannot be inputted 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  28. Design Concepts (cont’d) • Keep it clean • Sticking close to the theme and eschewing distracting detail • Store less and process more • Main role of a computer is to process information not store information • Fill your program with active bytes not lazy bytes • Games with information-rich and process-poor are close to stories 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  29. Design Concepts (cont’d) • Maintain unity of design effort • Game must be designed, but computer must be programmed • Conflicts between artists and programmer 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  30. Game Design Sequence • Choose a goal and a topic • Research and preparation • Design phase • I/O structure • Game structure • Program structure • Evaluation of the design • Pre-programming phase • Programming phase • Playtesting phase 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  31. Choose a Goal and a Topic • A game must have a clearly defined goal expressed in terms of the effect on the player • Choose a goal in which you believe • The goal of STAR RAIDERS concerns the violent resolution of anger through skillful planning and dexterity. The topic is combat is space 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  32. Choose a Goal and a Topic • The goal of EASTERN FRONT 1941 concerns the nature of modern war, the different between fire power and effectiveness. The topic is the war between Russian and Germany 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  33. Research and Preparation • Read everything you can on the topic • Your game must give the authentic feel • Concentrate on goal and topic • Write NO CODE! 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  34. Design Phase • Primary objective is to create the outlines of three interdependent structures: • the I/O structure • the game structure • the program structure • All 3 structures must be created simultaneously 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  35. I/O Structure • Communicating information between computer and player • the most constraining structure • I/O composed of input (keyboard, joystick, mouse,etc.) and output (display and sound) • Devote special care to the input structure • How can a player control the game with a joystick? • Choice of input devices 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  36. Game Structure • Internal architecture of causal relationships that define the obstacles the player must overcome • Main problem is with realizing possibilities • How to distill the fantasy of the goal and topic into a workable system • The designed must identify some “key” element from the topic (eg. movement) 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  37. Program Structure • Translate I/O structure and game structure into product • Organization of mainline code, subroutines, interrupts and data that make up the entire program • Important elements • Memory map • variables and subroutines definitions • document 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  38. Evaluation of the Design • Does this design satisfy my design goal? • Does it do what I want it to do? • Will the player really experience what I want him to experience? • Examine the stability of the game structure • Are there any circumstances in which the game could get out of control? • Insure that shortcuts to victory are blocked • Don’t hesitate to abort the game 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  39. Pre-programming Phase • To prepare complete game document • The tone of the document should emphasize the player’s experience rather that technical considerations • Compare first set of document to program structure notes 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  40. Programming Phase • Easiest phase • Requires attention to detail • Game failed to live up to their potential because the programmer: • did not expend enough effort • rushed the job • didn’t bother to write in assembly language 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  41. Playtesting Phase • To check for some design and programming problems • Have courage to trash a fatal-flawed game • test the game yourself to find programming bugs, then let other playtesters to check for bugs in game structure • polish the game • write the game manual 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  42. Design Techniques and Ideas • Balancing solitaire games • human vs computer • Relationships between opponents • Smooth learning curve • The illusion of winnability 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  43. Balancing Solitaire Games • Vast resources • widely used • the computer is provided with immense resources that it uses stupidly • easy to implement • Artificial smarts • ad-hoc artificial intelligent routines • produce reasonable behavior • the computer should not drive its tanks over a cliff or crash spaceships into each other • unpredictability (human should not be able to guess) 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  44. Limited Information • To limit the amount of information available to the human player 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  45. Pace • Make the game fast so that the human player does not have much time to think 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  46. Relationships between Opponents • Symmetric relationships • both sides have equals capability • easy to program • Asymmetric games • almost all solitaire games • Triangularity • rock-scissors-paper game • Actors and Indirect Relationships • not a very successful approach 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  47. Smooth Learning Curve • Flat curve => hard to learn • Steep curve => easy to learn • A sharp jump => has one trick • Many sharp jumps => has many tricks • Falling curve => something wrong with the game • Upward smoothly => goo game • Games without smooth curve frustrates players 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::

  48. The Illusion of Winnability • PAC-MAN appears winnable to most players, yet is never quite winnable • Clean games encourage all players • Careful analysis of the sources of player failure: • what trips up the player: game flaws or unwinnable or player mistake? 240-492 Games Programming with Java ::: Introduction :::