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SpaceTEC ® Certification Readiness Course. Applied Mechanics. Introduction. Objective: Provide basis for demonstrating a basic knowledge which will allow you to: Interpret a basic drawing Produce a layout/template Fabricate a project. Applied Mechanics Topics. Machine Shop Safety

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spacetec certification readiness course

SpaceTEC® Certification Readiness Course

Applied Mechanics

  • Objective:
    • Provide basis for demonstrating a basic knowledge which will allow you to:
      • Interpret a basic drawing
      • Produce a layout/template
      • Fabricate a project

applied mechanics topics
Applied Mechanics Topics
  • Machine Shop Safety
  • Hand Tools
    • Non-Cutting
    • Cutting
  • Drill Presses, Twist Drills, Drilling Holes
  • Measurement
  • Hardware and Materials
  • Basic Calculations
  • Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings

  • Recognize safe and unsafe work practices in a shop
  • Identify and correct hazards in the shop area
  • Perform your job in a manner that is safe for you and other workers

safety in the shop
Safety in the Shop

Must consider

  • Personal protection and grooming
  • Proper housekeeping
  • Safe work practices
  • Fire protection

personal protection and grooming
Personal Protection and Grooming
  • Always wear approved eye protection
    • Plain safety glasses with side shields
    • Plastic safety goggles
    • Face shields
  • Note: Lenses MUST be made of approved safety shatterproof glass


personal protection and grooming7
Personal Protection and Grooming
  • Never wear loose clothing
  • Remove wrist watches, rings and bracelets
  • Never wear gloves when operating machinery
  • Long hair must be protected by hair net or cap
  • No canvas or open-toes sandals

  • Stop machine before cleaning it
  • Keep machine, floors and hand tools clean
  • Use brush and not cloth to remove chips
  • Never use compressed air to remove chips from machine

safe work practices
Safe Work Practices
  • Before operating any machine you must understand its mechanism and how to stop
  • Always stop machine before measuring, cleaning, or making any adjustments
  • Clamp all work securely in place prior to operation
  • Use proper wrench for job

safe work practices10
Safe Work Practices
  • Pressured Lines
    • Flexible pressurized lines
      • Can Experience 5% to 8% growth
    • Relieve Stress on fluid or pneumatic lines
      • Bends in lines help take up surges
      • Accumulators also take up surges
    • Compressed air in the shop area
      • Check filters for moisture
      • Check operating pressure before using pneumatic tools

safe work practices11
Safe Work Practices.
  • Cutting, Forming, Drilling, Sanding
      • Always Wear eye protection/dust mask
    • Place work in a suitable holder:
      • Bench-mounted vise
        • Soft metal caps over steel jaws to protect work
    • When Cutting:
      • Keep hands, fingers away from cutting surfaces
    • When Drilling:
      • Back up materials
        • Don’t use your hands!
        • Always know what is behind
      • Keep work from spinning
        • Place clamp or table stop on right-hand side of work

fire protection
Fire Protection
  • Always dispose of oily rags in proper metal containers
  • Know location and operation of every fire extinguisher
  • Know location of nearest fire exit from building
  • Know location of nearest fire-alarm box and its operating procedure

hand tools
Hand Tools
  • Two Basic Types
  • Noncutting
    • Include vises, hammers, screwdrivers, wrenches and pliers
    • Used basically for holding, assembling or dismantling parts
  • Cutting
    • Includes Chisels, Saws (Hacksaws), Hand Files, Punches, Reamers, tap and dies,etc.

hand tools14
Hand Tools
  • Tool Inventory
  • Tool Selection

non cutting hand tools
Non-Cutting Hand Tools
  • Hammers and Mallets
    • Metal-Head Hammers
      • The Ball Peen Hammer
        • Hammer head held in place by a wedge
        • Face of the hammer is the striking surface
        • The Ball Peen Hammer is the hammer most often used by machinists

non cutting hand tools16
Non-Cutting Hand Tools
  • Hammers and Mallets
    • Soft-Faced Hammer
      • Used for forming soft metals
      • Striking easily-damaged surfaces
      • ShouldNotbe used for striking punches, chisels, bolts, or nails
    • Dead Blow Hammer

non cutting hand tools17
Non-Cutting Hand Tools
  • Hammers and Mallets Mallet
      • Hammer-like tool
        • Made of hickory, rawhide, rubber, or plastic
      • Used for shaping metal or wood-working

non cutting hand tools18
Non-Cutting Hand Tools
  • Screwdrivers
    • Classified by shape, type of blade, and blade length
      • Common – slotted head
      • Phillips – head forms perfect cross
      • Offset – used when vertical space is limited
    • Sizes
      • Flat screwdrivers are generally sized by width of blade or size screw it fits
      • Almost all other types (Phillips, etc) are sized by point sizes
        • Phillips #1, #2, #3, #4 are most common

screwdriver drives
Screwdriver Drives





Tri Wing

Torq Set

(a) Slotted, (b) Phillips, (c) Pozidriv, (d) Torx, (e) Hex, (f) Robertson, (g) Tri-Wing, (h) Torq-Set, (i) Spanner

non cutting hand tools20
Non-Cutting Hand Tools
  • Screwdrivers
    • Made for one purpose only – loosening or tightening screws
    • When using a screwdriver,
      • Select the largest blade that will fill the screw head
      • Wrong size blade will damage screw head and screwdriver blade

non cutting hand tools21
Non-Cutting Hand Tools
  • Punches
    • Center
      • Used to start holes for drilling
      • Automatic or manual
    • Prick
      • Used to transfer dimensions
    • Tapered, or Drive Punch
      • Used for driving out rivets, pins, bolts bound in holes
    • Pin, or Drift
      • Same as tapered only straight shank

non cutting hand tools22
Non-Cutting Hand Tools
  • Wrenches – designed to fit a nut or bolt head and exert a turning motion
    • Open End – open parallel jaws on one or both ends
    • Box End – box, or completely surround bolt head or nut
    • Combination – open end on one end, box of the same size on the other
    • Socket – square drive on one end that fits T, ratchet, screwdriver grip, speed handle
    • Adjustable – one fixed jaw, one adjusted by thumbscrew
    • Special
      • Hook Spanner – curved arm with hook for slotted nuts
      • Allen – six-sided bars shaped in an “L”

non cutting hand tools23
Non-Cutting Hand Tools
  • Torque wrench – precision tool to measure amount of turning or twisting force applied
      • Deflecting beam
      • Dial indicating
      • Micrometer setting

torque wrench
Torque wrench

torque wrench25
Torque Wrench
  • Torque
    • Also known as twisting force
      • Force X Distance (Moment)
    • Used to deliver loads safely throughout a structure
    • F, L, T, where:
      • F = Force
      • L = Lever length
      • T = Applied Torque

torque wrench26
Torque Wrench
  • Torque wrench extensions
    • Increase lever length
    • Increase applied force
    • Require recalculation of applied force
      • Formula:

Where: A = Lever length of wrench

B = Lever length of wrench plus extension

Te = Required torque on bolt

Tw = Torque reading on wrench dial

Tw = Te X A


torque calculation w extension
Torque Calculation w/Extension
  • Example:
    • 40 ft lbs required torque on 3/8“ bolt
    • 4 in. extension necessary at 45-degree angle resulting in 2” effective length increase on 18” torque wrench
  • A = Lever length of wrench
  • B = Lever length of wrench
  • plus extension
  • Te = Required torque on bolt
  • Tw = Torque reading on
  • wrench dial

Tw = Te (40 ft lbs) X A (18 in.)

B (18” + 2”)

Tw = 720 = 36 ft lbs.


non cutting hand tools28
Non-Cutting Hand Tools
  • Use of Machinist Vise

1. Open jaws (1) of vise wide enough to allow you to insert the object you want to clamp.


Use brass or copper caps on vise jaws to protect soft material when clamping.


Do not strike vise with a heavy object or try to hold large work in a small vise.

non cutting hand tools29
Use of Machinist ViseNon-Cutting Hand Tools

2. Insert object (2) to be clamped between vise jaws and tighten handle (3).

3. Work should be held firmly in place, but the jaws should not be so tight that they mar the finish. A piece of rawhide or leather may be used to protect highly polished surfaces:


When holding hard material in vise jaws

tightened by hand, give the vise handle a

sharp rap for final tightening.

non cutting hand tools30
Non-Cutting Hand Tools
  • Soldering Iron Preparation
    • Place the soldering iron in its stand and plug in.The iron will take a few minutes to reach its operating temperature of about 400°C.
    • Dampen the sponge in the stand.The best way to do this is to lift it out the stand and hold it under a cold tap for a moment, then squeeze to remove excess water. It should be damp, not dripping wet.
    • Wait a few minutes for the soldering iron to warm up.You can check if it is ready by trying to melt a little solder on the tip.
    • Wipe the tip of the iron on the damp sponge.This will clean the tip.
    • Melt a little solder on the tip of the iron.This is called 'tinning' and it will help the heat to flow from the iron's tip to the joint. It only needs to be done when you plug in the iron, and occasionally while soldering if you need to wipe the tip clean on the sponge.

non cutting hand tools31
Non-Cutting Hand Tools
  • Soldering Iron Use
    • Hold the soldering iron like a pen, near the base of the handle.Imagine you are going to write your name! Remember to never touch the hot element or tip.
    • Touch the soldering iron onto the joint to be made.Make sure it touches the joint. Hold the tip there for a few seconds and...
    • Feed a little solder onto the joint.It should flow smoothly. Apply the solder to the joint, not the iron.
    • Remove the solder, then the iron, while keeping the joint still.Allow the joint a few seconds to cool before you move the joint
    • Inspect the joint closely.

cutting hand tools
Cutting Hand Tools
  • Hacksaw
    • Blade teeth always face forward
    • Low pressure, let blade do the work
  • Hand Snips
    • Straight – cutting straight lines
    • Curved – cutting outside of curves
    • Hawksbill – cutting inside of curves or radii
    • Aviation – compound leverage-type for cutting aluminum alloy or stainless steel sheet
      • Left-to-right (red)
      • Right-to-left (green)
      • Straight (yellow)

  • Hard steel cutting tool for cutting or chipping any material softer than itself
    • Used for:
      • Shearing rivets
      • Splitting seized or damaged nuts from bolts
    • Made of eight-sided tempered and hardened tool steel bar stock
    • Cutting edge should be beveled 60-70 degrees for general use
    • Types:
      • Flat or cold
      • Single or double bevel point
      • Round nose
      • Diamond point

  • Files are used for cutting, smoothing off, or removing small amounts of metal, wood, plastic, or other material.
  • Files are made in various lengths, shapes, and cuts.
  • Every file has five parts: the point (1), edge (2), face or cutting teeth(3), heel or shoulder (4) and tang (5).
  • The tang is used to attach the handle

hand files and file card
Hand Files and File Card
  • Types of Files
    • Flat, mill, square, round or rattial, triangular, three square, half round, wood and vixen
      • Most common is the mill, rattial and vixen
      • Clean all files with a File Card
      • File in forward direction only
      • Keep file well oiled

use and care of files
Use and Care of Files
  • Apply pressure only on forward stroke
  • Do not store files where they rub together or against other tools
  • Never use file as pry bar or a hammer
  • Do not knock file on vise or other metallic object to clean it (use brush or file card)
  • Too much pressure also results in "pinning" which scratches work surface
    • Small particles wedged between teeth

hand cutting tools
Hand Cutting Tools
  • Reamers
    • Used to bring hole to size and produce good finish
    • Solid Hand Reamer
      • Made of carbon steel or high-speed steel
      • Available in inch sizes from .125 - 1.500 in.
        • Metric from 1 – 26 mm in diameter
      • Not adjustable and may have straight or helical flutes

reamer use and precautions
Reamer Use and Precautions
  • Place end of reamer in hole and place tap wrench on square end of reamer
  • Rotate reamer clockwise to align with hole
  • Check reamer for squareness with work
  • Use cutting lubricant where required
  • Rotate reamer slowly clockwise and apply downward pressure
  • Never turn reamer backward (counterclockwise), it will dull teeth
  • Never attempt to remove too much material
  • Frequently clear hole of chips

hand cutting tools40
Hand Cutting Tools
  • Taps and Dies
    • Taps > used to make internal threads
    • Dies > used to make external threads

  • Made from high quality tool steel, hardened and ground
  • Two, three, or four flutes cut lengthwise across threads to form cutting edges
    • Provide room for chips
    • Admit cutting fluid to lubricate tap
  • End of shank square so either a straight or t-handle tap wrench can be used to turn tap

  • Inch tap markings
    • Major diameter
    • Number of threads per inch
    • Type of thread

½ in.—13 UNC

½ in. = major diameter of tap

13 = number of threads per inch

UNC = Unified National Coarse (type of thread)

  • Taper
    • Tapered from end six threads
    • Used to start thread easily
    • Used for tapping hole that goes through work as well as blind hole
  • Plug
    • Tapered for three threads
    • Tread hole through workpiece
  • Bottoming tap
    • Not tapered but chamfered at end
    • Used for threading to bottom of blind hole

tap drill size
Tap Drill Size
  • Hole drilled to correct tap drill size
    • Leave proper amount of material for tap to cut thread (75%)

A = body size

B = tap drill size

C = minor diameter

Find tap drill size for a 7/8 in. –9NC tap

TDS = tap drill size

D = major diameter of tap

N = number of threads per inch

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

threading dies
Threading Dies
  • Used to cut external threads on round work
  • Most common threading dies
    • Adjustable split die
    • Adjustable screw plate die
    • Solid die

threading dies46
Threading Dies
  • Solid die
    • Used for chasing damaged threads
    • May be driven by suitable wrench
    • Not adjustable
  • Adjustable split die
    • Has adjusting screw that permits adjustment over or under standard depth of thread
    • Fits into die stock

to thread with a hand die
To Thread With a Hand Die
  • Chamfer end of workpiece with file or on grinder
  • Fasten work securely in vise
  • Select proper die and die stock
  • Lubricate tapered end of die with suitable cutting lubricant
  • Place tapered end of die squarely on workpiece

Press down on die stock handles and turn clockwise several turns
  • Check die to see that it has started squarely with work
  • If not square, remove die and restart
  • Turn die forward one turn and reverse it approximately one-half turn to break chip
  • During threading process, apply cutting fluid frequently

If thread must be cut to shoulder, remove die and restart it with tapered side of die facing up (complete the thread)

drill presses
Drill Presses
  • Used to drill precision holes
    • Four main parts:
      • Floor stand
      • Adjustable table
      • Adjustable spindle
      • Electric motor
    • Always clamp to drill press base
    • Drill diameter has no bearing on drill speed
    • Drill pressure is critical
    • Hard and slow for hard metal; fast for soft
    • Make sure drill bit is secured to the chuck

drill press photo
Drill Press Photo

twist drills
Twist Drills
  • Twist Drills
    • Hardened shank contains flutes, which form cutting surfaces, flow cutting fluid, and provide for chip removal
    • Included angle of bits:
      • 135 degrees
      • 118 degrees
      • 90 degrees
      • 60 degrees

Note: Straight shank drill bits measure up to ½ inch

drilling holes
Drilling Holes
  • 135 degrees (included angle)
    • High speed, low pressure for very hard materials
  • 118 degrees (included angle)
    • High pressure, low speed for steel
  • 90 degrees (included angle)
    • Used primarily for soft material
    • Medium pressure
    • Low pressure, high speed for aluminum
  • 60 degrees (included angle)
    • Used primarily for soft material
    • Medium pressure

Note: When drill point is about to break through material, reduce pressure

drilling holes con t
Drilling Holes (Con’t)
  • Locate/position hole
    • Usecenter punch
    • Drill pilot hole first # 40 bit
    • Drill up to size (Square to material)
    • If you are reaming, drill hole .0003 to .007 undersize then ream up to size
    • Rotate reamer in cutting direction only when cutting or removing

aerospace hardware
Aerospace Hardware
  • Typical Types of Hardware
    • Bolts
    • Nuts
    • Washers
    • Screws
    • Cotter pins and safety wire
    • Rivets
    • Turnlock fasteners
    • Miscellaneous items such as 0-rings, crush washers, etc.
    • Control cable hardware
    • Fluid lines and fittings
    • Electrical wiring and connectors

  • Bolts – Typical Head Markings

  • Bolts
    • A bolt with a single raised dash is a AN corrosion resistant steel bolt
    • An AN Clevis bolt is for shear applications only. This type of bolt is used only where shear loads occur and never in tension. It is often inserted as a mechanical pin in a control surface. They have a slotted headed
    • A bolt head with a triangle, recessed or not, isa “Close Tolerance” bolt and must be driven into a hole.

aerospace bolt id
Aerospace Bolt ID
  • Bolt Sizes
    • “AN” represent Air Force – Navy standard for bolt
    • If the letter "C" follows the AN designation (ANC) that identifies a stainless steel bolt. The letter "H" after AN (ANH) identifies a drilled head bolt.
    • The first number after "AN" designates the diameter (1/16" increments)
    • The last number, either single or double digit denotes length; a single digit denotes nominal length to the 1/8th of an inch; double digit numbers denote the first digit as a whole measure in inches, the second an additional nominal sizing to the 1/8 inch measure.
    • The "A" at the very end of all the numbers designates that there will be no hole in the shank. Meaning that the hole is "Absent".

aerospace bolt id59
Aerospace Bolt ID
  • Bolt Sizes
    • Example:
  • AN4-8A
  • AN means the bolt is manufactured according to Air Force-Navy specs.
  • 4 identifies the diameter of the bolt shank in 1/16" increments
  • 8 identifies the length of the shank in 1/8" increments
  • A means the shank of the bolt is undrilled (no letter here means a drilled shank)

safety wire
Safety Wire
  • Items shall be safety wired in such a configuration that the safety wire shall be put in tension when the parts tend to loosen.
  • Safety wiring is considered a redundant means of securing components to prevent the component from loosening should the primary retention capability fails during operation.

aircraft circular ac 43 13 1b
Aircraft Circular AC 43.13-1B
  • AC 43.13-1B covers all the aspects of general safety wire practices.
  • Three common wire sizes 0.020, 0.032, 0.041.
  • Safety wire shall be new for each application.

safety wire pliers
Safety wire pliers
  • Four different types

  • Should be six to eight turns per inch.
  • The pigtail S/B ¼-to ½-inch (three to six twists).

  • Rivets
    • Shop head of a rivet is one and one-half (1½) larger than the shank
    • The bucked end is also one and one-half (1½) the shank diameter
    • Aluminum (2117-T) rivets are heat treated by manufacture and can be driven when used. They are known as field rivets
    • Aluminum (2017–T) is a refrigerated rivet and must be driven within one hour. The (2024-T) is also a refrigerated rivet and must be driven within 10 to 20 minutes after removal from refrigeration.

aerospace rivets
Aerospace Rivets
  • Identification
    • Types of Solid Shank Rivets
      • Universal (AN470 or MS20470)
      • Round
      • Flathead
      • Countersunk (AN426 or MS20426)
      • Brazier

aerospace rivets67
Aerospace Rivets
  • Head of solid shank rivets are marked to identify specific material of the rivet.
      • 1100 very soft material (Plugs)
      • 2017T and 2024T (Refrigerated)
      • 5056T used to rivet magnesium

aerospace rivets68
Aerospace Rivets
  • Rivet Installation
    • Use a center punch to mark hole, then drill pilot hole
    • Drill hole up to size
    • Countersink for 100 degree rivet (Pg 542)
    • Flat rivet set is used for installing countersunk rivets
    • Rivet must be flush with material being riveted
    • Universal Rivet, use slightly greater radius rivet set to install rivet
    • Spacing is 3X rivet diameter
    • Edge distance is minimum of 2x diameter
    • Length of rivet protruding is 1 ½ diameter
    • Bucked end is 1 ½ diameter

When installing a rivet always use a slightly

larger drill than rivet diameter!

aerospace rivets70
Aerospace Rivets
  • Drill Bits to use for Rivet Installations
    • See “Drill Sizes”
      • #40 drill bit for 3/32 rivet
      • #30 drill bit for 1/8 rivet
      • #20 drill bit for 5/32 rivet
      • #10 drill bit for 3/16 rivet

Example: #10 drill bit measures .1935

3/16” rivet diameter is .1875

aerospace rivets71
Aerospace Rivets
  • Rivet Removal
    • Center punch rivet first to indent the head, then drill center of rivet with one size smaller drill bit.

Drill off the rivet head only!

    • Knock out rivet with ball peen hammer using pin punch slightly smaller than rivet diameter

Critical to keep hole the same diameter!

rivet measurement
Rivet Measurement
  • Rivet Measurement
      • AN426AD-4-8 (Countersink)
        • #4 is the diameter in 32nds
        • #8 is the length in 16ths
        • Rivet Pitch is distance between rivets in the same row
    • Question: What would be the necessary length of the rivet to go through two ¼ inches pieces of 2024-T3 aluminum and be ready to drive?

rivet measurement73
Rivet Measurement


  • The total thickness is ½ inch or (16/32) plus we need the rivet to protrude 1 ½ diameter so we can buck or drive it.
  • Therefore the total length of the rivet must be 1/8 X 1.5=.1875 or 3/16 (6/32).
  • 6/32 + 16/32 = 22/32.
  • The rivet would be an AN426AD-4-11

basic math
Basic Math
  • Fractions
      • Of the following fractions what one is most nearly to 0.17187?
      • 11/64, 9/32 or 11/32
      • What do you have to do?

- Multiplying using a Fractions

35 x 5/7 = _____

How did you arrive with the answer?

basic math75
Basic Math
  • Multiplication of Decimals
      • 9.45 X 120 = ________
      • 2.13 x .203 = ________
    • Addition of Decimals
      • 2.34 + 37.5 = ________
      • 2.34 + 37.5 + .09 = ________

basic math76
Basic Math
  • Multiplication of Decimals – Answer:
      • 9.45 X 100 = 945
      • 9.45 X 20 = 189
      • 945 + 189 = 1134
      • 2.13 X .200 = .426
      • 2.13 X .003 = .00639
      • .426 + .00639 = .43239

basic math77
Basic Math
  • Addition of Decimals– Answer:


+ 37.50

= 39.84


+ 37.50

+ .09

= 39.93

basic math78
Basic Math
  • Expressing a decimals as a percentage
    • .90 as a percent
    • Move the decimal two places to the right
    • Affix the percent symbol to the right after dropping the decimal point
    • .90 – 90. – 90%
  • Expressing a percent as a decimal
    • Keeping in mind that a percent is simply a decimal with the decimal point moved two places to the right, all that is necessary to express a percent as a decimal is to move the decimal point two places to the left

basic math79
Basic Math
  • Areas
  • Volumes

Area = axb

Area = pi r 2

Volume = axbxc

Volume = [pi] r2 h

basic math80
Basic Math
  • Ideal Gas Law PV=nRT
    • V=volume in liters
    • n=moles of gas
    • P=pressure in atm
    • T=temperature in Kelvin's
    • R is the molar gas constant
  • For given gas R is constant and for given number of moles of gas the equation can be solved to relate pressure, temperature and volume between two different states

basic math81



½ V1




½ V1

2 P1



Basic Math

Gas Laws

  • Examples:
    • Container size of gas halved; temperature remains same
    • Equation P1V1=P2V2

basic math82
Basic Math

Temperature conversion Fahrenheit and Celsius

  • The equation relating the two is C = (F-32) * 5 / 9
  • From F to C: - subtract 32 - multiply by 5 - divide by 9From C to F: - multiple by 9 - divide by 5 - add 32

basic math83
Basic Math
  • Gearing
    • Used to transmit power between shafts rotating usually at different speeds
      • Two main types
        • Spur gears – the larger
        • Pinion gears – the smaller

Pinion to Spur gear ratio:

# of teeth on spur gear / # of teeth on pinion gear

Ex: 150-tooth spur; 30-tooth pinion:

150/30 = 5 or 5 to 1; also expressed as a ratio, i.e. 5 : 1

basic measurement
Basic Measurement

Measuring Tools, Torque and Gearing

basic measurement85
Basic Measurement
  • The Micrometer
    • Precision measuring instrument
    • Handle with care
    • Four types of Micrometers
      • Outside
      • Inside
      • Depth
      • Thread

basic measurement86
Basic Measurement
  • Most common: One inch, outside Micrometer

basic measurement87
Basic Measurement
  • Micrometer (Con’t)
    • Used to measure
      • Thickness
      • Diameter
      • Other items
    • Storing a Micrometer
      • Never tighten Anvil against Spindle, leave a small opening
      • Store in a dry place, box, or pouch
      • If dropped, check for accuracy with Gauge Block before using

basic measurement88
Basic Measurement
  • How to use and read a Micrometer
    • Hold frame in palm of hand with little finger or third finger inside the frame
    • Tighten around object until ratchet clicks
    • Micrometers with Vernier scale allow you to read the fraction of the division on the barrel scale
    • One revolution of micrometer is 0.025
    • Gauge Block should be used to check calibration

basic measurement89
Basic Measurement

basic measurement90
Basic Measurement

basic measurement91
Basic Measurement

basic measurement92
Basic Measurement

basic measurement93
Basic Measurement
  • Depth Micrometer
    • Used to measure
      • Holes
      • Grooves
      • Recesses
    • When using a Depth Micrometer:
      • Make sure base has a flat, smooth surface to rest on
      • Hold firmly in place to prevent lift-off and ensure an accurate measurement

basic measurement94
Basic Measurement
  • How to use and read a Depth Micrometer
    • Graduations on the barrel are numbered in the opposite direction of those on an outside micrometer
    • Pay attention to numbers you can’t see

4 tenths + 25 thousandths + 10 thousandths

= 0.435

basic measurement95
Basic Measurement
  • Calipers
    • Digital
    • Dial
    • Vernier
  • Easy to read
    • Can be used to measure
      • Outside
      • Inside
      • Depth

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Basic Measurement
  • Vernier Caliper:
    • The main scale is divided in inches.
      • Each inch is divided into 40 parts, like the sleeve on the micrometer
      • Each division is equal to 0.025 inch
    • A movable jaw that matches the fixed jaw slides along the main scale bar
      • Contains 25 divisions that equal 24 divisions on the main scale

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Basic Measurement
  • How to read a Vernier Caliper:
    • Read the nearest number located on the main scale (in inches) and add to that the number of subdivisions.
      • Make sure to read from the zero on the movable jaw Vernier scale and not the jaw edge!
    • Scan down the movable jaw Vernier scale and select the number that matches up exactly with the main scale
    • Add this number to the numbers from the main scale

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Basic Measurement

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Basic Measurement
  • Ball gauges (Small Hole gauge)
    • Used to measure small holes up to ½ inch in diameter
    • Insert ball gauge into hole and tighten
    • Remove ball gauge and use a micrometer to determine size of hole by measuring 90 degrees to separation (spilt) on the ball gauge
    • Store with ball retracted (backed-off)

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Basic Measurement
  • Telescoping Gauges
    • Used to measure inside cylinders, typically up to six inches in diameter.
    • Allow spring loaded “T” gauge to extend to inside opening
    • Lock shaft
    • Measure with micrometer
    • Store with ‘T” gauge extended.

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Basic Measurement
  • The steel rule
    • Lengths vary – most common 6 in or 36 in
    • Can be used as a straight edge
    • Usually contains four scales, 1/32, 1/64, 1/10, 1/100.
    • The fractional divisions of an inch are found by dividing the inch into equal parts:
      • Halves, quarters, eights, sixteenths, thirty- seconds and sixty-fourths or
      • Decimals of 100th of an inch

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Basic Measurement

The Combination Set

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Basic Measurement
  • Combination Set
    • Can be used as a ordinary rule
      • 16ths, 32nds scales
    • Tri-square
      • 90°, 45° angles, Bubble Level
    • Protractor
      • Precision angles
    • Center head
      • Used to find the center of an object
    • Each head slides along the blade and can be locked in place

blueprint reading and interpreting technical drawings
Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings
  • 3 types of working drawings
      • Detail drawing
        • Single part
      • Assembly drawing
        • Two or more parts assembled together
      • Installation drawing
        • All necessary information for a part or an assembly to be installed on the vehicle/rocket/aircraft

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Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings
  • Orthographic Projection, Six views

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Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings
  • Title Block
      • Name of the firm
      • Name of the part
      • The scale
      • Name of the draftsmen, the checker and the person approving the drawing
      • The date
      • Drawing number

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Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings
  • Orthographic Projection, 3 views

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Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings
  • Tolerance
    • When a given dimension on a print shows the allowable variation, the plus (+) figure indicates the maximum and the minus (–) figure indicates minimum allowable variation. Also called the “the extreme permissible dimensions of the hole or part.
    • Example: Using .225 + .0025 - .005
    • The hole could be as large as .2275

The hole could be as small as .2200

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Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings
  • Schematics diagrams do not indicate the locations of individual components in the vehicle or rocket, but do locate components with respect to each other

any questions
Any Questions?
  • Lets take the quiz!
  • Remember this “Readiness Course” in “Applied Mechanics” is a review. It is highly recommended you review applicable chapters in AC65-9A before testing (1, 2, 6 &12).

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  • AC 43.13-1B Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices - Aircraft Inspection and Repair
  • AC65-9A Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics General Handbook
  • AC 65-15A [Large AC] Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics Airframe Handbook

Design Handbook
  • Virtual Machine Shop