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SpaceTEC ® Certification Readiness Course. Applied Mechanics. Introduction. Objective: Provide basis for demonstrating a basic knowledge which will allow you to: Interpret a basic drawing Produce a layout/template Fabricate a project. Applied Mechanics Topics. Machine Shop Safety

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SpaceTEC ® Certification Readiness Course


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  1. SpaceTEC® Certification Readiness Course Applied Mechanics www.spacetec.org

  2. Introduction • Objective: • Provide basis for demonstrating a basic knowledge which will allow you to: • Interpret a basic drawing • Produce a layout/template • Fabricate a project www.spacetec.org

  3. Applied Mechanics Topics • Machine Shop Safety • Hand Tools • Non-Cutting • Cutting • Drill Presses, Twist Drills, Drilling Holes • Measurement • Hardware and Materials • Basic Calculations • Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings www.spacetec.org

  4. Objectives • Recognize safe and unsafe work practices in a shop • Identify and correct hazards in the shop area • Perform your job in a manner that is safe for you and other workers www.spacetec.org

  5. Safety in the Shop Must consider • Personal protection and grooming • Proper housekeeping • Safe work practices • Fire protection www.spacetec.org

  6. Personal Protection and Grooming • Always wear approved eye protection • Plain safety glasses with side shields • Plastic safety goggles • Face shields • Note: Lenses MUST be made of approved safety shatterproof glass ! www.spacetec.org

  7. Personal Protection and Grooming • Never wear loose clothing • Remove wrist watches, rings and bracelets • Never wear gloves when operating machinery • Long hair must be protected by hair net or cap • No canvas or open-toes sandals www.spacetec.org

  8. Housekeeping • Stop machine before cleaning it • Keep machine, floors and hand tools clean • Use brush and not cloth to remove chips • Never use compressed air to remove chips from machine www.spacetec.org

  9. Safe Work Practices • Before operating any machine you must understand its mechanism and how to stop • Always stop machine before measuring, cleaning, or making any adjustments • Clamp all work securely in place prior to operation • Use proper wrench for job www.spacetec.org

  10. Safe Work Practices • Pressured Lines • Flexible pressurized lines • Can Experience 5% to 8% growth • Relieve Stress on fluid or pneumatic lines • Bends in lines help take up surges • Accumulators also take up surges • Compressed air in the shop area • Check filters for moisture • Check operating pressure before using pneumatic tools www.spacetec.org

  11. Safe Work Practices. • Cutting, Forming, Drilling, Sanding • Always Wear eye protection/dust mask • Place work in a suitable holder: • Bench-mounted vise • Soft metal caps over steel jaws to protect work • When Cutting: • Keep hands, fingers away from cutting surfaces • When Drilling: • Back up materials • Don’t use your hands! • Always know what is behind • Keep work from spinning • Place clamp or table stop on right-hand side of work www.spacetec.org

  12. Fire Protection • Always dispose of oily rags in proper metal containers • Know location and operation of every fire extinguisher • Know location of nearest fire exit from building • Know location of nearest fire-alarm box and its operating procedure www.spacetec.org

  13. Hand Tools • Two Basic Types • Noncutting • Include vises, hammers, screwdrivers, wrenches and pliers • Used basically for holding, assembling or dismantling parts • Cutting • Includes Chisels, Saws (Hacksaws), Hand Files, Punches, Reamers, tap and dies,etc. www.spacetec.org

  14. Hand Tools • Tool Inventory • Tool Selection www.spacetec.org

  15. Non-Cutting Hand Tools • Hammers and Mallets • Metal-Head Hammers • The Ball Peen Hammer • Hammer head held in place by a wedge • Face of the hammer is the striking surface • The Ball Peen Hammer is the hammer most often used by machinists www.spacetec.org

  16. Non-Cutting Hand Tools • Hammers and Mallets • Soft-Faced Hammer • Used for forming soft metals • Striking easily-damaged surfaces • ShouldNotbe used for striking punches, chisels, bolts, or nails • Dead Blow Hammer www.spacetec.org

  17. Non-Cutting Hand Tools • Hammers and Mallets Mallet • Hammer-like tool • Made of hickory, rawhide, rubber, or plastic • Used for shaping metal or wood-working www.spacetec.org

  18. Non-Cutting Hand Tools • Screwdrivers • Classified by shape, type of blade, and blade length • Common – slotted head • Phillips – head forms perfect cross • Offset – used when vertical space is limited • Sizes • Flat screwdrivers are generally sized by width of blade or size screw it fits • Almost all other types (Phillips, etc) are sized by point sizes • Phillips #1, #2, #3, #4 are most common www.spacetec.org

  19. Screwdriver Drives Phillips Square Torx Slotted Tri Wing Torq Set (a) Slotted, (b) Phillips, (c) Pozidriv, (d) Torx, (e) Hex, (f) Robertson, (g) Tri-Wing, (h) Torq-Set, (i) Spanner www.spacetec.org

  20. Non-Cutting Hand Tools • Screwdrivers • Made for one purpose only – loosening or tightening screws • When using a screwdriver, • Select the largest blade that will fill the screw head • Wrong size blade will damage screw head and screwdriver blade www.spacetec.org

  21. Non-Cutting Hand Tools • Punches • Center • Used to start holes for drilling • Automatic or manual • Prick • Used to transfer dimensions • Tapered, or Drive Punch • Used for driving out rivets, pins, bolts bound in holes • Pin, or Drift • Same as tapered only straight shank www.spacetec.org

  22. Non-Cutting Hand Tools • Wrenches – designed to fit a nut or bolt head and exert a turning motion • Open End – open parallel jaws on one or both ends • Box End – box, or completely surround bolt head or nut • Combination – open end on one end, box of the same size on the other • Socket – square drive on one end that fits T, ratchet, screwdriver grip, speed handle • Adjustable – one fixed jaw, one adjusted by thumbscrew • Special • Hook Spanner – curved arm with hook for slotted nuts • Allen – six-sided bars shaped in an “L” www.spacetec.org

  23. Non-Cutting Hand Tools • Torque wrench – precision tool to measure amount of turning or twisting force applied • Deflecting beam • Dial indicating • Micrometer setting www.spacetec.org

  24. Torque wrench www.spacetec.org

  25. Torque Wrench • Torque • Also known as twisting force • Force X Distance (Moment) • Used to deliver loads safely throughout a structure • F, L, T, where: • F = Force • L = Lever length • T = Applied Torque www.spacetec.org

  26. Torque Wrench • Torque wrench extensions • Increase lever length • Increase applied force • Require recalculation of applied force • Formula: Where: A = Lever length of wrench B = Lever length of wrench plus extension Te = Required torque on bolt Tw = Torque reading on wrench dial Tw = Te X A B www.spacetec.org

  27. Torque Calculation w/Extension • Example: • 40 ft lbs required torque on 3/8“ bolt • 4 in. extension necessary at 45-degree angle resulting in 2” effective length increase on 18” torque wrench • A = Lever length of wrench • B = Lever length of wrench • plus extension • Te = Required torque on bolt • Tw = Torque reading on • wrench dial Tw = Te (40 ft lbs) X A (18 in.) B (18” + 2”) Tw = 720 = 36 ft lbs. 20 www.spacetec.org

  28. Non-Cutting Hand Tools • Use of Machinist Vise 1. Open jaws (1) of vise wide enough to allow you to insert the object you want to clamp. CAUTION Use brass or copper caps on vise jaws to protect soft material when clamping. CAUTION Do not strike vise with a heavy object or try to hold large work in a small vise. www.spacetec.org

  29. Use of Machinist Vise Non-Cutting Hand Tools 2. Insert object (2) to be clamped between vise jaws and tighten handle (3). 3. Work should be held firmly in place, but the jaws should not be so tight that they mar the finish. A piece of rawhide or leather may be used to protect highly polished surfaces: NOTE When holding hard material in vise jaws tightened by hand, give the vise handle a sharp rap for final tightening. www.spacetec.org

  30. Non-Cutting Hand Tools • Soldering Iron Preparation • Place the soldering iron in its stand and plug in.The iron will take a few minutes to reach its operating temperature of about 400°C. • Dampen the sponge in the stand.The best way to do this is to lift it out the stand and hold it under a cold tap for a moment, then squeeze to remove excess water. It should be damp, not dripping wet. • Wait a few minutes for the soldering iron to warm up.You can check if it is ready by trying to melt a little solder on the tip. • Wipe the tip of the iron on the damp sponge.This will clean the tip. • Melt a little solder on the tip of the iron.This is called 'tinning' and it will help the heat to flow from the iron's tip to the joint. It only needs to be done when you plug in the iron, and occasionally while soldering if you need to wipe the tip clean on the sponge. www.spacetec.org

  31. Non-Cutting Hand Tools • Soldering Iron Use • Hold the soldering iron like a pen, near the base of the handle.Imagine you are going to write your name! Remember to never touch the hot element or tip. • Touch the soldering iron onto the joint to be made.Make sure it touches the joint. Hold the tip there for a few seconds and... • Feed a little solder onto the joint.It should flow smoothly. Apply the solder to the joint, not the iron. • Remove the solder, then the iron, while keeping the joint still.Allow the joint a few seconds to cool before you move the joint • Inspect the joint closely. www.spacetec.org

  32. Cutting Hand Tools • Hacksaw • Blade teeth always face forward • Low pressure, let blade do the work • Hand Snips • Straight – cutting straight lines • Curved – cutting outside of curves • Hawksbill – cutting inside of curves or radii • Aviation – compound leverage-type for cutting aluminum alloy or stainless steel sheet • Left-to-right (red) • Right-to-left (green) • Straight (yellow) www.spacetec.org

  33. Chisels • Hard steel cutting tool for cutting or chipping any material softer than itself • Used for: • Shearing rivets • Splitting seized or damaged nuts from bolts • Made of eight-sided tempered and hardened tool steel bar stock • Cutting edge should be beveled 60-70 degrees for general use • Types: • Flat or cold • Single or double bevel point • Round nose • Diamond point www.spacetec.org

  34. Files • Files are used for cutting, smoothing off, or removing small amounts of metal, wood, plastic, or other material. • Files are made in various lengths, shapes, and cuts. • Every file has five parts: the point (1), edge (2), face or cutting teeth(3), heel or shoulder (4) and tang (5). • The tang is used to attach the handle www.spacetec.org

  35. Hand Files and File Card • Types of Files • Flat, mill, square, round or rattial, triangular, three square, half round, wood and vixen • Most common is the mill, rattial and vixen • Clean all files with a File Card • File in forward direction only • Keep file well oiled www.spacetec.org

  36. Most Common files types Files www.spacetec.org

  37. Use and Care of Files • Apply pressure only on forward stroke • Do not store files where they rub together or against other tools • Never use file as pry bar or a hammer • Do not knock file on vise or other metallic object to clean it (use brush or file card) • Too much pressure also results in "pinning" which scratches work surface • Small particles wedged between teeth www.spacetec.org

  38. Hand Cutting Tools • Reamers • Used to bring hole to size and produce good finish • Solid Hand Reamer • Made of carbon steel or high-speed steel • Available in inch sizes from .125 - 1.500 in. • Metric from 1 – 26 mm in diameter • Not adjustable and may have straight or helical flutes www.spacetec.org

  39. Reamer Use and Precautions • Place end of reamer in hole and place tap wrench on square end of reamer • Rotate reamer clockwise to align with hole • Check reamer for squareness with work • Use cutting lubricant where required • Rotate reamer slowly clockwise and apply downward pressure • Never turn reamer backward (counterclockwise), it will dull teeth • Never attempt to remove too much material • Frequently clear hole of chips www.spacetec.org

  40. Hand Cutting Tools • Taps and Dies • Taps > used to make internal threads • Dies > used to make external threads www.spacetec.org

  41. Taps • Made from high quality tool steel, hardened and ground • Two, three, or four flutes cut lengthwise across threads to form cutting edges • Provide room for chips • Admit cutting fluid to lubricate tap • End of shank square so either a straight or t-handle tap wrench can be used to turn tap www.spacetec.org

  42. Taps • Inch tap markings • Major diameter • Number of threads per inch • Type of thread ½ in.—13 UNC ½ in. = major diameter of tap 13 = number of threads per inch UNC = Unified National Coarse (type of thread) www.spacetec.org

  43. Taps • Taper • Tapered from end six threads • Used to start thread easily • Used for tapping hole that goes through work as well as blind hole • Plug • Tapered for three threads • Tread hole through workpiece • Bottoming tap • Not tapered but chamfered at end • Used for threading to bottom of blind hole www.spacetec.org

  44. Tap Drill Size • Hole drilled to correct tap drill size • Leave proper amount of material for tap to cut thread (75%) A = body size B = tap drill size C = minor diameter Find tap drill size for a 7/8 in. –9NC tap TDS = tap drill size D = major diameter of tap N = number of threads per inch www.spacetec.org Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

  45. Threading Dies • Used to cut external threads on round work • Most common threading dies • Adjustable split die • Adjustable screw plate die • Solid die www.spacetec.org

  46. Threading Dies • Solid die • Used for chasing damaged threads • May be driven by suitable wrench • Not adjustable • Adjustable split die • Has adjusting screw that permits adjustment over or under standard depth of thread • Fits into die stock www.spacetec.org

  47. To Thread With a Hand Die • Chamfer end of workpiece with file or on grinder • Fasten work securely in vise • Select proper die and die stock • Lubricate tapered end of die with suitable cutting lubricant • Place tapered end of die squarely on workpiece www.spacetec.org

  48. Press down on die stock handles and turn clockwise several turns • Check die to see that it has started squarely with work • If not square, remove die and restart • Turn die forward one turn and reverse it approximately one-half turn to break chip • During threading process, apply cutting fluid frequently If thread must be cut to shoulder, remove die and restart it with tapered side of die facing up (complete the thread) www.spacetec.org

  49. Drill Presses • Used to drill precision holes • Four main parts: • Floor stand • Adjustable table • Adjustable spindle • Electric motor • Always clamp to drill press base • Drill diameter has no bearing on drill speed • Drill pressure is critical • Hard and slow for hard metal; fast for soft • Make sure drill bit is secured to the chuck www.spacetec.org

  50. Drill Press Photo www.spacetec.org