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Media & Politics. Overview. The Media as a Political Institution Types & Forms of Media Media and the Campaigns. Media as Political Institution. Political Figures. The People. Media as Political Institution. Political Figures. The People.

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Presentation Transcript
overview
Overview
  • The Media as a Political Institution
  • Types & Forms of Media
  • Media and the Campaigns
media as political institution
Media as Political Institution

Political

Figures

The People

media as political institution4
Media as Political Institution

Political

Figures

The People

Democracy presupposes a tight connection between political leaders and the people

media as political institution5
Media as Political Institution

Political

Figures

The People

How to reach each other?

Direct contact options

media as political institution6
Media as Political Institution

Political

Figures

The People

Direct contact options have limited capacity to reach mass audience though

media as political institution7
Media as Political Institution

M

E

D

I

A

Political

Figures

The People

media as political institution8
Media as Political Institution

M

E

D

I

A

Political

Figures

The People

Use media to reach the people, but message is “mediated” by the media

media as political institution9
Media as Political Institution

M

E

D

I

A

Political

Figures

The People

Use media to reach political leaders, but message is “mediated” by the media

media as political institution10
Media as Political Institution
  • Media has a pivotal role to play in democracy
  • An informed electorate is essential to democratic politics
  • For politicians to represent the “will of the people,” they need to know what the people want
types and forms of media
Types and Forms of Media
  • Basic media types:
    • television
    • radio
    • print
    • internet
    • cinema
    • music
    • advertising
types and forms of media12
Types and Forms of Media
  • In U.S., most of these are for profit enterprises
  • Need for profit shapes content delivered
  • Presents possibility of conflicting aims of political figures and media owners
types and forms of media15
Types and Forms of Media
  • Most of the information and programming in the media is not necessarily overtly political
  • That is, much is “entertainment” rather than information
political uses of media
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Explicit

Implicit

political uses of media17
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Content is explicitly political and intends to change political beliefs or behavior

Explicit

Implicit

political uses of media18
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Political ads, PSAs, Documentaries

Explicit

Implicit

political uses of media19
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Content is explicitly political and intends to change political beliefs or behavior

Explicit

Political content is implied and intent is change political beliefs or behavior

Implicit

political uses of media20
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Political ads, PSAs, Documentaries

Explicit

Political values in entertainment programming

Implicit

political uses of media21
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Content is explicitly political, but with no intent to influence political behavior or beliefs

Content is explicitly political and intends to change political beliefs or behavior

Explicit

Political content is implied and intent is change political beliefs or behavior

Implicit

political uses of media22
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Political ads, PSAs, Documentaries

News

Explicit

Political values in entertainment programming

Implicit

political uses of media23
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Content is explicitly political, but with no intent to influence political behavior or beliefs

Content is explicitly political and intends to change political beliefs or behavior

Explicit

Political content is implied and intent is change political beliefs or behavior

Whatever political content and consequences that may exist are unintentional

Implicit

political uses of media24
Political Uses of Media

Intentional

Unintentional

Political ads, PSAs, Documentaries

News

Explicit

Vast majority of entertainment programming

Political values in entertainment programming

Implicit

political uses of media25
Political Uses of Media
  • Political leaders in U.S. need media, but have little direct opportunity to truly shape and control message that is being delivered
  • With the exception of advertisements, control devolves to reporters, editors, publishers/producers, owners
political uses of media26
Political Uses of Media
  • Political Leaders prefer to use unfiltered content -- they get their message right to the people
political uses of media27
Political Uses of Media
  • But in the US, where media is not under direct government control, executives, producers/editors, and reporters may have different agenda.
political uses of media28
Political Uses of Media

Unmediated Content:

  • Political figure has direct and immediate access to the public
political uses of media29
Political Uses of Media

Political

Figures

The People

Most political leaders prefer this sort of direct interaction, but they also recognize the limitations of this approach and the necessity of media assistance in mass democracy

political uses of media30
Political Uses of Media

Partly Mediated

  • Political figure uses media and media has partial element of control in dissemination and/or content of the message
political uses of media31
Political Uses of Media

Fully Mediated

  • Media controls dissemination and/or content of the message
political uses of media32
Political Uses of Media
  • Because of interest in ratings, media outlets need to develop stories that engage audience fairly quickly
  • Means focusing more on the “horse race” angle of the election -- who’s ahead? by how much? who’s going to win? -- rather than the issues that are driving the election
political uses of media33
Political Uses of Media
  • Media needs to focus on elements of good story, that means need the elements of good narrative: heroes, villains, plot lines
  • Need to have conflict, resolution, something “newsworthy”
    • focus on gaffes, arguments, “peripheral” issues of campaign
political uses of media34
Political Uses of Media
  • Candidates and parties have only limited control of the campaign
  • Limited ability to control images and perceptions dramatically increases importance of succeeding in those areas that the candidates can control -- primarily advertising
  • That puts campaign finance at the heart of the campaign