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Televised Elections:. A Historical Look at How Television Changed Presidential Elections. By: Talea Schroeder. 1960: Nixon Vs. JFK. First election to utilize a televised debate Nixon was projected to win the debate Nixon was ill and refused to wear make-up

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Televised Elections:

A Historical Look at How Television Changed Presidential Elections

By: Talea Schroeder


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1960: Nixon Vs. JFK

  • First election to utilize a televised debate

  • Nixon was projected to win the debate

  • Nixon was ill and refused to wear make-up

  • Americans listening on the radio thought Nixon won the debate.

  • Americans watching on Television gave it to JFK.


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Ramifications of a bad debate

  • Nixon lost the election of 1960

    • Media did not like him

    • He portrayed a weak image on Television

  • One debate can win of lose an election for a candidate.

  • One debate can change history…


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1968: Nixon Vs. Humphrey

  • Nixon changes his tone toward T.V.

    • Nixon refused to have a debate

    • He spent $12.6 million on forty T.V. spots

    • After the primaries the press began to realize the change in Nixon’s attitude. As a result, they boosted his coverage and image


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1968 Election Outcome

  • Nixon Won!

    • 499,704 votes

    • 43.4% of popular vote

    • 32 States

  • Created a better relationship with the media

  • Cemented the need for a televised campaign


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Is he good looking?

  • If these former Presidents would have run a Televised campaign they would not have won.



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Statistics on Debates

  • In the 1964, 1968, and 1972 elections there were no debates

  • Beginning in 1976 televised debates became standard protocol

  • The larges viewing audience for a Televised Debate was in 1980 when 80 million people watched Carter, Reagan, and Anderson


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Statistics on Television Ads

  • It costs $525,000 to run a weeks worth of ads in New York City

  • From 1960 to 2000 voter turn out increased 37 million due to voter awareness

  • Bush spent over $100 million on TV Ads in 2004

  • For more statistics visit www.teachablemoment.org/high/election4.html


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Time to Apply and Question

  • Using the information found on http://www.museum.tv/debateweb/html/equalizer/stats_tvratings.html make a graph describing the public’s viewing habits and discuss the following questions:

    • What did you find that surprised you?

    • Which type of Media is more effective?

    • What should Televisions role be in an election?

    • Should there be some reform? If so, What?

    • Should candidates be allowed to spend so much money on T.V. ads?

    • What do you think television’s role in elections is likely to become in the next 20 years?


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Standards

  • Technology at www.ISTE.org

    • Social, ethical, and human issues: Students understand the ethical, cultural, and societal issues related to technology. Students develop positive attitudes toward technology uses that support lifelong learning, collaboration, personal pursuits, and productivity.

    • Technology research tools: Students use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources. Students use technology tools to process data and report results.

  • Social Studies at www.socialstudies.org/standards/teachers

    • Time, Continuity, and Change allows learners to understand their historical roots and to locate themselves in time. Learning how to read and reconstruct the past allows them to develop a historical perspective

    • Individual Development, and Identity: All humans think, learn, act, and develop cognitively, socially, physically, emotionally, personally, and mentally as well as construct, test, confirm, revise, and apply multiple concepts of and multiple identities as to who they are.

    • Individuals, Groups, and Instructions Institutions such as schools, churches, families, government agencies, and the courts all play integral roles in our lives. They further the core social values of those who comprise them.

    • Power, Authority, and Governance: Understanding the historical development of structures and their evolving functions in contemporary American society, as well as in other parts of the world, is essential for the development in learners of civic competence.


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Resources

  • Bochin, Hal. Richard Nixon: Rhetorical Strategist. New York: Greenwook Press. 1990.

  • Larie, Leonard. The Running of Richard Nixon. New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1972.

  • Mazo, Earl. Nixon: A Political Portrait. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1968.

  • McGinniss, Joe. The Selling of the President, 1968. New York: Trident Press, 1969.

  • http://www.museum.tv/debateweb/html/equalizer/stats_tvratings.html

  • www.teachablemoment.org/high/election4.html

  • www.ronaldreaganweb.com/ thesixties/rndebate.htm

  • www.ronaldreaganweb.com/ thesixties/jfkdebate.htm

  • www.beoworld.co.uk/ vintage/television.htm



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