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CLASS AMPHIBIA Order Anura. Ca. 4750 species worldwide (the most diverse group within Amphibia) Cosmopolitan distribution (except where limited by extremely cold or xeric climates) High reproductive diversity Mostly external fertilization Few internal fertilization (e.g., Ascaphus )

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class amphibia order anura
CLASS AMPHIBIAOrder Anura
  • Ca. 4750 species worldwide (the most diverse group within Amphibia)
  • Cosmopolitan distribution (except where limited by extremely cold or xeric climates)
  • High reproductive diversity
    • Mostly external fertilization
    • Few internal fertilization (e.g., Ascaphus)
    • Direct development
    • Few viviparous species

Agalychnis callidryas

family pelobatidae
Family Pelobatidae
  • 3 genera, 10 species (Holarctic distribution)
  • NA genera: Scaphiopus, Spea (1 genus in Europe: Pelobates)
  • Terrestrial, fossorial (sharp-edged spade on hind feet)
  • External fertilization

Scaphiopus couchii

scaphiopus vs spea
Scaphiopus vs. Spea
  • Scaphiopus: Spade on hindfoot elongated, sickle-shaped
  • Spea: Spade on hindfoot short, rounded, wedge-shaped
pelobatids of nevada
Pelobatids of Nevada
  • Great Basin Spadefoot (Spea intermontana)
family bufonidae
Family Bufonidae
  • 33 genera, 376 species
  • Cosmopolitan distribution (except Greenland, Australia, Antarctica)
  • Mostly terrestrial
  • External fertilization (except few genera with internal fertilization, viviparity, or direct development)

Bufo boreas

Bufo alvarius

family bufonidae6
Family Bufonidae
  • Most species with paratoid glands (producing toxins; Neotropical genus, Atelopus, produces Tetrodotoxin, just like the Salamandrid genus Taricha)

Bufo marinus

Bufo terrestris

bufo alvarius
Bufo alvarius
  • Largest western toad
  • Enlarged warts on hindlegs

All maps found in this presentation are from ARMI Atlas for Amphibian distribution

bufo boreas
Bufo boreas
  • Usually rather indistinct white or cream-colored dorsal stripe
  • Lack of cranial crests
bufo cognatus
Bufo cognatus
  • Large toad with well defined pale-bordered dark blotches, in symmetrical pairs on its back
  • Cranial crests diverge widely towards rear of head
bufo debilis
Bufo debilis
  • A small toad
  • Green or yellow green with small dark spots and bars on its back
  • Cranial crests weak or absent
bufo exsul
Bufo exsul
  • Small dark-colored toad
  • Extremely small distribution
  • White or cream below with dark blotches
bufo marinus
Bufo marinus
  • Introduced species from Central America
  • Large toad with deeply pitted paratoid glands extending far down sides of body
bufo punctatus
Bufo punctatus
  • Small toads with flattened head and body
  • Paratoid glands are round
bufo speciosus
Bufo speciosus
  • Medium-sized toad, uniformly warty, and with no dorsal stripe
  • Cranial crest weak or absent
  • Large inner metatarsal tubercle elongate and sharp-edged
bufo valliceps
Bufo valliceps
  • Broad, dark lateral stripe bordered above by a light stripe
  • Cranial crests strongly developed
  • Deep “valley” down center of the head
bufo woodhousii
Bufo woodhousii
  • White dorsal stripe
  • Prominent cranial crest
  • Elongate paratoid glands
bufo microscaphus
Bufo microscaphus
  • Back usually without prominent dark spotting
  • Skin relatively smooth
bufonids of nevada
Bufonids of Nevada

Bufo nelsoni

Bufo boreas

Bufo microscaphus

Bufo cognatus

Bufo alvarius?

Bufo woodhousii

Bufo punctatus

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