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Writing Effective Job Descriptions/Orders. How to analyze and write job descriptions in compliance with the ADA Robin Jones, Director Great Lakes ADA and Accessible IT Center. Legal Context of Job Description. Not required by state or federal law

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writing effective job descriptions orders

Writing Effective Job Descriptions/Orders

How to analyze and write job descriptions in compliance with the ADA

Robin Jones, Director

Great Lakes ADA and Accessible IT Center

Copyright Great Lakes ADA and Acessible IT Center

legal context of job description
Legal Context of Job Description
  • Not required by state or federal law
  • ADA identifies the job description as a piece of evidence documenting what the essential functions of a job are
    • To be prepared prior to initiating any hiring process and should be kept current to reflect the “current” job functions

Copyright Great Lakes ADA and Acessible IT Center

practical context of job descriptions
Practical Context of Job Descriptions
  • Tool for supervisors and managers to utilize when identifying qualified applicants
  • Tool for supervisors and managers when performance related issues arise with existing employees
  • Tool for potential applicants when identifying jobs/positions for which they may be qualified

Copyright Great Lakes ADA and Acessible IT Center

why is this important
Why is this important?
  • The ADA prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability for “qualified” applicants with a disability
  • All aspects of the employment process are covered by the ADA, including recruitment and

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who is a qualified individual with a disability
Who is A “Qualified Individual With A Disability”?
  • The ADA protects an employee or job applicant who has the prerequisite skills and knowledge and is able to perform the essential functions of the job, with or without the employer making a “reasonable accommodation for that disability.”

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defining essential functions process vs outcomes examples
Defining Essential Functions Process vs Outcomes (Examples)
  • A job that requires objects to be moved from one place to another should be stated as “the ability to lift 50 pound cartons to a height of 3-4 feet and load them into trucks, rather than the ability to manually lift and load 50 pound cartons”

Copyright Great Lakes ADA and Acessible IT Center

defining essential functions process vs outcome examples
Defining Essential FunctionsProcess vs. Outcome (Examples)
  • A computer programmer job might be described as “the ability to develop programs that accomplish necessary objectives”, rather than “the ability to manually write programs”

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defining essential functions process vs outcome examples8
Defining Essential Functions Process vs. Outcome (Examples)
  • A job that requires mastery of information contained in technical manuals would be stated as the “ability to learn technical material”, rather than “the ability to read technical manuals”

Copyright Great Lakes ADA and Acessible IT Center

writing a comprehensive job description

Writing a Comprehensive Job Description

Copyright Great Lakes ADA and Acessible IT Center

guidelines
Guidelines
  • Use clear, concise language
  • Describe the job “as is”
  • Keep the content to a minimum
  • Use disclaimer language

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elements of a job description
Elements of a Job Description
  • Job Title
  • Job Summary
  • Essential Functions
  • Nonessential Functions
  • Job Specifications ( i.e.Education, Physical Demands, Mental Demands, Working Conditions)

Copyright Great Lakes ADA and Acessible IT Center

summary of the position
Summary of the Position
  • Explain why the position exists in the organization
  • Ask yourself:
    • What is the worker paid for achieving?
    • What would get done in the organization if the position did not exist?

Copyright Great Lakes ADA and Acessible IT Center

essential functions
Essential Functions
  • State what is done
  • Ask yourself:
    • Is the task critical to job success?
    • If the task occurs infrequently, is it critical to successful job performance?

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organizing essential functions
Organizing Essential Functions
  • Sequence of Operations Approach: follow sequence in which the functions are carried out.
  • Major Duty Approach: organize into major job duties with most essential listed first.
  • Relative Importance Approach: organize information about job duties based on importance or amount of time spent.

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performance standards
Performance Standards
  • Describe how the essential functions are done
  • These standards include:
    • Process Standard
    • Time Standard
    • Quantity Standard
    • Quality Standard

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process standard
Process Standard
  • What methods, techniques, procedures and tools are used?
  • How much physical exertion is required? (including but not limited to: lifting, standing, bending, reaching, twisting and crawling.)
  • Is the process an essential part of the activity? (i.e. reading, seeing, verbal, etc.)

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time standard
Time Standard
  • How much time is allowed to perform the function?
  • Is the pace consistent?
  • How many employees are available to perform this particular job or job function?

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quantity standard
Quantity Standard
  • How often is the function performed?
  • Are the functions performed less frequently as important to success as those done more frequently?

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quality standard
Quality Standard
  • How is success measured?
  • What happens if the task is done wrong?

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other areas to be included
Other Areas to be Included:
  • Working Conditions
  • Supervision/Control
  • Qualifications

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working conditions
Working Conditions
  • What are the environmental, psychological and physiological considerations?

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supervision control
Supervision/Control
  • How Frequently is supervision required?
  • What standards are the workers expected to meet independently?

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qualifications
Qualifications
  • What amplitudes are necessary?
  • What knowledge is necessary?
  • What skills are necessary?

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terms to be used with caution
Terms To Be Used With Caution
  • “And Other Tasks As Assigned”
    • Understand that employer still has obligation to provide accommodation if needed should additional job duties be added. Not to be used to subvert the requirements of the ADA
  • “Including, But Not Limited To”
    • When used to determine whether someone is “qualified” must be able to define to extent that someone applying for the position can address what the job tasks are and how they may be able to perform with or without reasonable accommodation.

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what does this look like

What does this look like?

Copyright Great Lakes ADA and Acessible IT Center

job order roofer
Job Order - Roofer

Education: No minimum requirement

Professional Licenses/Certifications: None requested

Vehicle: No Vehicle Required

Drivers License: None required

Age: 18 or older

Experience: Need to be open minded and willing to learn. Want someone who takes pride in their work. Good clean driving record is a plus but not needed as long as you can get to the worksite

Duties and Work with foreman on removal, Responsibilities: clean-up and install of shingled roofs

Copyright Great Lakes ADA and Acessible IT Center

job order carpenter
Job Order - Carpenter

Education: High School/GED Equivalent

Professional License: None requested

Vehicle: Desired

Drivers License: Class D- Regular required

Age: None requested

Experience: 2-6 years documented experience

Qualifications: Applicant possess all skills necessary for this position, plus have excellent interpersonal skills, strong work ethic, clean cut appearance and ability to solve problems on own.

Duties: Job responsibilities range from roofing, siding, cabinet installation, finishing

Copyright Great Lakes ADA and Acessible IT Center

job order administrative assist
Job Order- Administrative Assist
  • Education: High School Equivalent
  • Professional License: None requested
  • Vehicle: Required
  • Drivers License: Class D- Regular required
  • Age: No age requested
  • Experience: Must have experience in word, excel, peachtree a plus
  • Qualifications: Strong customer service skills, multi- taking, able to work well in a team environment

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job order admin assist continued
Job Order-Admin Assist-Continued

Duties: Answers phones, work with insurance companies/adjustors and customers. Enter all time cards into system of all employees, including t temporary employees, work with project managers on billings and track progress of each job. Review billings to make sure all figures are correct, handle all incoming and outgoing mail. Will be expected to be on call in emergency cases. HR background a plus.

Copyright Great Lakes ADA and Acessible IT Center

resources
Resources
  • Job Accommodation Network
    • 800-526-7234 (V/TTY)
    • www.jan.wvu.edu/
  • IRS (Tax credits and deductions)
    • 800-829-4933
    • www.irs.gov
  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
    • 800-669-4000
    • www.eeoc.gov

Copyright Great Lakes ADA and Acessible IT Center

questions
Questions?
  • By telephone
    • 800-949-4232 (v/tty)
  • By fax
  • 312-413-1856
  • By e-mail
    • GLDBTAC@uic.edu
  • By internet
    • www.adagreatlakes.org

Copyright Great Lakes ADA and Acessible IT Center