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Wildlife Animal User Training The University of Montana Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee Objectives Ensuring safety Of you & your co-workers Of animals Occupational health program Review of zoonotic diseases of wildlife Protecting Yourself Situation awareness

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wildlife animal user training

Wildlife Animal User Training

The University of Montana

Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee

objectives
Objectives
  • Ensuring safety
    • Of you & your co-workers
    • Of animals
  • Occupational health program
  • Review of zoonotic diseases of wildlife
protecting yourself
Protecting Yourself
  • Situation awareness
    • “Perception of environmental elements within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future” Endsley, M. R. (1995)
    • “Knowing what is going on so you can figure out what to do” Adam, E. C. (1993)
situation awareness
Situation Awareness
  • Necessary components
    • Knowledge of environment, terrain & their special concerns
    • Anticipation of changing conditions
    • Rapid collection & processing of new information
    • Training in how to respond appropriately
    • Always staying alert & engaged
special environments
Special Environments
  • Desert/arid conditions
    • Hyperthermia
    • Dehydration
  • Winter/mountainous conditions
    • Hypothermia
    • Frostbite
    • Avalanche
    • Snow blindness
lack of or inadequate situation awareness
Lack of or Inadequate Situation Awareness

One of the primary factors in accidents attributed to human error

safety training
Safety Training
  • Single most important component of being prepared & staying safe
  • Training provided by principal investigator (PI) may include
    • Survival
    • Injury prevention
    • First aid
    • Team communication
common field injuries
Common Field Injuries
  • Knee & ankle from slips & falls
  • Stings & bites
    • Known allergy?  carry

MD-prescribed

epinephrine pen

(“epi pen”)

  • Muscle strain from lifting or falling
common field injuries9
Common Field Injuries
  • Driving accidents can result in serious injury or death
    • Highway
    • Off-road vehicles
      • ATVs, snow mobiles
      • Proper training

required

      • ALWAYS wear

a HELMET

basic personal safety
Basic Personal Safety
  • Use appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

As necessary,

  • Gloves
  • Sturdy boots
  • Eye protection
  • Coveralls
  • Mask or respirator
basic safety principles
Basic Safety Principles
  • Sharps containers  small sizes available for field work
  • Good hygiene  especially hands  waterless hand sanitizer (2 & 4.5 oz bottles)
  • Protect human food and water
  • Communicate with your team
in case of accident
In Case of Accident . . .
  • Seek medical attentionas necessary
  • Work related?  tell medical provider
  • Worker’s comp claim
    • Supervisor will have forms or find at http://www.umt.edu/research/eh/wc.htm
  • Accident reporting packet in glove box of UM vehicles
  • Non-UM rented vehicle? Find forms at http://www.umt.edu/research/eh/accidents.htm
injury from animals
Injury from Animals
  • Bites/scratches
    • Clean & disinfect ASAP
    • Consider aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen for pain/inflammation
    • Antibiotics from MD may be needed
  • Kicks/blunt trauma
    • Large ruminants  blows to the head, chest or abdomen can cause internal injuries
    • First aid, then medical attention
early reporting of injury
Early Reporting of Injury
  • Absolutely imperativeto inform
    • Direct Supervisor
    • Principal Investigator
    • Co-workers when in remote field areas
  • Any unusual symptoms  seek medical help immediately
  • Best defense is a good offense  Provide a complete history to assist physicians
keeping animals safe
Keeping Animals Safe
  • Situation Awareness
  • Knowledge
  • Training
  • Co-workers

Group training in blood collection before going to the field

danger to you danger to them
Danger to You? Danger to Them
  • Weather danger
    • Heat
      • Overheating, dehydration
      • Heat stress (including fish)  all magnified by capture
      • Trap/capture cool times of day & provide shade
      • Provide moist food to prevent dehydration
      • Cool packs for drugged animals
      • Reduce stress  minimize shrill noises, cover eyes, monitor for shock
weather danger
Weather Danger
  • Cold
    • Hypothermia, slowed metabolism & anesthetic recovery
    • Warm packs for anesthetized animals
    • Provide nest material for warmth
    • Provide food for energy
    • Monitor body temperature & vital signs
euthanasia
Euthanasia
  • IACUC requires each Animal Use Protocol (AUP) to have a euthanasia contingency plan for serious injury
  • Serious injury – compound fractures, gaping wounds to chest/abdomen, severe unresponsive shock, head trauma – that precludes survival in the wild
  • 2007 AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia

http://www.umt.edu/iacuc/vetguidelines/euthanasia.htm

occupational health
Occupational Health
  • Why?
    • Mandatory for UM to maintain animal research program accreditation
  • Why us?
    • Everyone listed on an AUP must and any one else interested may participate
risk assessment
Risk Assessment
  • IACUC sponsored occupational health monitoring program to protect you
  • Risk assessment performed by occupational health physician based on info you provide
  • All medical info stored confidentially at physician’s office
  • http://www.umt.edu/iacuc/ohs/riskassessment.htm
review zoonotic diseases
Review: Zoonotic Diseases
  • Zoonosis review is a requirement for accreditation of UM animal research program
  • Zoonosis = disease that can be transferred from animals to humans
  • Many of the diseases reviewed may be transferred from tissues & body fluids of dead or live animals
rabies
Rabies
  • Rhabdovirus
  • Fatal if no treatment or vaccine protection
  • Infects all warm-blooded mammals
  • Sylvatic rabies  wildlife in life cycle
  • Ole Yeller
  • Photo credits - CDC

“Mad” Rabies

rabies23
Rabies
  • “Dumb” rabies
  • Wildlife
    • Lose fear of humans
    • Unusually “friendly”
    • Uncharacteristic places
    • Uncharacteristic times of day
    • Neurological signs
    • Photo credits - CDC

Rabid fox

rabies24
Rabies
  • Wildlife reservoirs in US in 2001
    • Raccoons (38%)
    • Skunks (30%)
    • Bats (17%)
    • Foxes (6%)
    • Photo credits - CDC

Silver-haired bat

rabies transmission
Rabies Transmission
  • Animal bites (virus in saliva)
  • Contamination of broken skin
  • Aerosol in bat caves
  • Corneal, liver, kidney transplant from infected donor
  • 1-2 human cases/year in U.S. most often bat-associated
rabies clinical signs
Rabies Clinical Signs
  • 75% humans ill < 90 days after bite wound
  • Nausea, vomiting, headache
  • Tingling and pain on side of body where bite located
  • Furious and paralytic forms
  • Cause of death usually respiratory failure during paralytic phase

CDC

Negri bodies – large pink inclusions in cytoplasm of brain cells – diagnose Rabies

rabies prevention
Rabies Prevention
  • Avoid close contact with wild animals exhibiting unusual behavior
  • Consider pre-exposure immunization if work is high-risk
  • Report animal bites immediately: post-exposure treatment should start within 24 hours
hantavirus
Hantavirus
  • Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)
  • 1993 - Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)
  • Sin Nombre virus
  • Wildlife reservoir - Peromyscus maniculatus

CDC

CDC

sin nombre transmission
Sin Nombre Transmission
  • Aerosol of deer mouse urine or feces
  • Contaminated hands  mucous membranes
  • Contaminated food
  • Bite transmission rare
  • 30-35% fatality rate
sin nombre clinical signs
Sin Nombre Clinical Signs
  • Incubation 9 to 33 days
  • High fever, malaise, muscle or joint aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, respiratory distress, cough

CDC

Early stage of disease

CDC

Middle stage of disease

sin nombre prevention
Sin Nombre Prevention
  • Personal protective equipment
    • Gloves, coveralls, boots
  • Work upwind of animals
  • Work in the sun, if possible
  • Wear a respirator
    • Fit-test through Environmental Health & Risk Management
plague
Plague
  • Yersinia pestis
  • Nonmotile, Gram – rod
  • “Black Death”
  • 3 forms (mortality):
    • Bubonic
    • Septicemic (5-50%)
    • Pneumonic (20%)

CDC

Gangrene of fingers – a complication of plague

plague35

Prairie Dog

Plague
  • > 200 species rodent reservoirs: prairie dogs, rats, marmots, hares, chipmunks, ground squirrels
  • Xenopsylla cheopis rat flea – regurgitates up to 20,000 plague bacteria from “blocked” gut

CDC

CDC

plague in animals
Plague in Animals
  • Pin-point hemorrhage  petechiae
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Respiratory disease
  • Photo credits - CDC
plague transmission
Plague Transmission
  • Bites of infected rodent fleas
  • Entry into breaks in skin when handling infected rodents or rabbits; wild carnivores that eat infected prey
  • Domestic cats highly susceptible – aerosol or handling
  • Dogs and cats can carry rat fleas
plague clinical signs
Plague Clinical Signs
  • Illness 2-6 days after infection
  • Swollen lymph gland, fever, chills, headache, extreme exhaustion
  • Photo credits - CDC
plague clinical signs39
Plague Clinical Signs
  • Cough, bloody sputum, increased heart rate, shock, DIC
  • Gangrene of fingers and toes

CDC

1 month after finger amputation for gangrene

plague prevention
Plague Prevention
  • Prevent flea infestation
  • Handle wild rodents with appropriate PPE
  • Do not handle wild rodents with petechial hemorrhages
  • Four Corners area of the US high incidence
tularemia
Tularemia
  • Francisella tularensis
  • Aerobic, gram - coccobacillus
  • > 10 organisms
  • 1.4% fatality rate
  • Arthropods in life cycle

CDC

Rhipicephalus sanguineus

“Brown dog tick”

tularemia transmission
Tularemia Transmission
  • Bites by infected arthropods
    • Ticks
  • Handling infectious tissues
  • Contaminated food, water, soil
  • Inhalation of infective aerosols
  • No human to human transmission
tularemia clinical signs
Tularemia Clinical Signs
  • Fever, headache, chills, body aches (low back), nasal discharge, sore throat
  • Substernal pain, cough, anorexia, weight loss, weakness

CDC

CDC

tularemia prevention
Tularemia Prevention
  • Personal protective equipment when skinning hares or rodents
  • Check for ticks daily & remove
  • Use repellants if possible

CDC

Wild hare – common culprit for disease transmission to hunters from bare-handed field skinning

west nile virus
West Nile Virus
  • Flavivirus
  • 1999 - in US
  • Horses & humans  encephalitis
  • Bird reservoirs: corvids
  • Spread by mosquitoes

CDC

CDC

Ochlerotatus japonicus

wnv clinical signs
WNV Clinical Signs
  • Incubation 3-14 days
  • 80% infected humans show no symptoms
  • 20% mild symptoms: fever, headache, body aches, nausea, rash
  • 1 in 150 infected  severe disease (e.g., stupor, coma, convulsions, paralysis)
west nile virus prevention
West Nile Virus Prevention
  • Long-sleeved shirts and long pants, when possible
  • Bug Tamer™ apparel (Shannon Outdoors, Inc)
  • Mosquito repellant – DEET for skin
  • Avoid dusk to dawn hours outside
  • Avoid areas of standing water
  • http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/westnile/recout.html
q fever
Q Fever
  • Coxiella burnetti
  • Sheep, goats, cattle
  • 1 organism can cause disease
  • Placental tissues
  • Spread by
    • Aerosol
    • Hands

CDC

CDC

q fever clinical signs
Q Fever Clinical Signs
  • 50% infected get ill in 2-3 weeks
  • 30-50% infected get pneumonia
  • Headache, malaise, muscle aches, confusion, GI signs, weight loss, hepatitis
  • 1-2% fatality rate
  • Chronic infection  endocarditis
  • 65% chronic cases end in death
slide51
LCM
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
  • 5% Mus musculus in US; wild mice; pet hamsters
  • Saliva, urine, feces of infected rodents
  • Mucous membranes, broken skin, bites

Hamster

Peromyscus sp.

lcm clinical signs
LCM Clinical Signs
  • Humans showing illness  signs 8-13 days post-infection
  • Early: biphasic fever, malaise, muscle aches, headache, nausea, vomiting
  • Later: headache, stiff neck, confusion, neurological signs
  • Early pregnancy: abortion or fetal birth defects
  • Fatality rate < 1%