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Course Information: 91.546 Computer Graphics I Instructor: Dr. Hugh Masterman The MITRE Corporation 781-271-3248 email: hcm@mitre.org Texts: Interactive Computer Graphics (4 th edition) Angel, Edward Addison Wesley 2001 ISBN 0-321-32137-5

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course information 91 546 computer graphics i
Course Information: 91.546 Computer Graphics I

Instructor: Dr. Hugh Masterman

The MITRE Corporation

781-271-3248

email: hcm@mitre.org

Texts: Interactive Computer Graphics (4th edition)

Angel, Edward

Addison Wesley 2001

ISBN 0-321-32137-5

OpenGL Programming Guide (4th edition)

Neider, Davis, &Woo

Addison Wesley 1999

ISBN 0-321-17348-1

Website: http://www.cs.uml.edu/~hmasterm/graphics1.html

computer graphics
Computer Graphics

Computer graphics is the discipline concerned with all

aspects of producing pictures or images using a computer.

Interactive computer graphics implies user is in the loop of

feedback process:

Graphics System

User

Display

React

to

Change

Change

Image

Input

Device

history of computer graphics
History of Computer Graphics
  • Whirlwind computer at MIT: SAGE (1950s)
  • Sketchpad (Ivan Sutherland, MIT 1963)
  • Computer Aided Design (CAD) 1965 -
  • Simulators (c.1975-)
  • Bitmap graphical user interfaces (late 70s)
  • Virtual reality (late 80s - )
  • Computer animation
  • Visualization
  • Computer art
  • Web/Internet based graphics

For a more detailed historical timeline

graphics conceptual model
Graphics: Conceptual Model

Real Light

Human Eye

Real Object

Synthetic

Light Source

Synthetic

Camera

Human Eye

Synthetic

Model

Real Object

Display

Device

Graphics System

computer graphics conceptual model
Computer GraphicsConceptual Model

Output

Devices

Application

Program

Application

Model

Graphics

System

Input

Devices

nature of light

X-rays

Light

IR

Radio

350

l (nm)

780

Nature of Light

Electromagnetic (wave) radiation:

l

Amplitude: L

Frequency: n

Velocity: c

Particle:

Ray propagation

Quantum energy E=hn

characterization of light

Direction, Amplitude, Wavelength:

( d, L, l)

L

l

Characterization of Light

Is this enough? Real world light rarely consists

of a single wavelength!

rgb color space
RGB Color Space

G

Green

(0,1,0)

Yellow

(1,1,0)

White

(1,1,1)

Cyan

(0,1,1)

Red

(1,0,0)

R

Blk

Blue

(0,0,1)

Magenta

(1,0,1)

B

additive color
Additive Color

Red

Magenta

Yellow

White

Cyan

Blue

Green

output devices
Hard copy

Printers

Dot matrix

Ink jet

Thermal transfer

Laser

Plotters

Soft copy

CRT

Flat panel

LCD

Electroluminescent

Plasma

Projector

Output Devices
color gamut 1996

530

520

0.8

540

510

Green

0.7

lc

nm

550

AMLCD

(Metal Halide)

560

0.6

Green

570

500

0.5

Green

580

CRT

590

y

0.4

600

610

Red

620

Red

490

0.3

640

Blue

770

0.2

AMLCD

(Halogen)

480

0.1

Blue

470

Blue

460

450

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Color Gamut: 1996
cathode ray tubes
Cathode Ray Tubes

AdvantagesLimitations

Very LOW cost Large volume/weight

Good visual quality Size < 45 inches

Wide viewing angle Repeatability

Simple grayscale High voltage

Simple addressing

Large manufacturing base

liquid crystal display lcd

Unpolarized

Unpolarized

Light Source

Light Source

Rear Linear Polarizer

Polarized Light

REAR GLASS

REAR GLASS

Polymeric

90 Degree

Alignment

Layer

"Twist"

FRONT GLASS

FRONT GLASS

Liquid-Crystal

Molecules

Transparent

Transmitted

No Light

Electrodes

Light

Transmission

( ~ < 10% Source)

Front Linear Polarizer

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
liquid crystal displays
Liquid Crystal Displays
  • AdvantagesLimitations
  • Thin/low weight Image size < 13 inches (passive)Rugged and reliable < 16 inches (active matrix)
  • Low voltage drivers Response time (passive)
    • Premium cost (active matrix)
  • Limited viewing angle
        • Limited temperature range
crt projection system
CRT Projection System

Liquid Cooled CRT

Multielement Lens Assembly

CRT: 5 to 13 Inches

Lens: F1.0 to F1.2

Screen

Red

Video

Drive

Electronics

Video

Green

Blue

Deflection Electronics

Digital Convergence

Static/Dynamic Focus

Video

Control

Microprocessor System

Automatic

Convergence

– Multisync Autolock Control

– Convergence and Setup Files

– Automatic Convergence Control

– Diagnostics

– On-Line Setup Instructions

– Remote Control

IR Line

Remote

Control

RS232/422

Remote Status/Control

lcd projector

Reflection

Mirror

G

Dichroic

Projection

Reflector

Lens

Metal-Halide

R

Lamp

B

Reflection

Mirror

Liquid-Crystal

Condenser

UV, IR Filter

Panel

Lens

LCD Projector

Dichroic Mirrors

head mounted displays 1999
Head-Mounted Displays (1999)

CyberEye 200

180K Pixels/LCD

27.5 deg. FOV

Weight 14 oz.

~$2,500

Kaiser ProView 30

300K Pixels/LCD

30 deg. FOV

Weight 32 oz.

~$8,000

N-Vision Datavisor 80

1,300K Pixels/CRT

80 deg. FOV

Weight 64 oz.

~$100,000

slide31
CAVE

CAVE available commercially from Pyramid Systems, Inc.

common raster display system architecture

Display

Common Raster DisplaySystem Architecture

Frame

Buffer

Video

Controller

Memory

CPU

System Bus

I/O

common single address space raster display system architecture

Display

Common Single Address SpaceRaster Display System Architecture

Frame

Buffer

Video

Controller

Memory

CPU

System Bus

Display

Processor

I/O

raster display system architecture with peripheral display processor

I/O

Display

Processor

DP

Memory

Frame

Buffer

Raster Display System ArchitectureWith Peripheral Display Processor

System

Memory

CPU

System Bus

Video

Controller

Display

monochrome frame buffer

D/A

Converter

Monochrome Frame Buffer

Bit n

CRT

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

Bit 4

Bit 3

Bit 2

Bit 1

color frame buffer
Color Frame Buffer

CRT

Red

D/A

Green

D/A

Blue

D/A

Bit n

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

Bit 4

Bit 3

Bit 2

Bit 1

video look up table

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

Bit n

Bit 4

Bit 3

Bit 2

Bit 1

Video Look-up Table

= 179

CRT

Look Up Table

Red

D/A

Green

D/A

Blue

D/A

177

178

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

179

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

180