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  1. Trademark Law Jody Blanke, Professor Computer Information Systems and Law Mercer University, Atlanta

  2. Trademark Law • Combination of federal and state law • Authority of federal law derives from regulation of interstate commerce • Authority of state law derives from regulation of intrastate commerce

  3. Protects Dual Interests • Protects trademark owner’s interest in brand name value and good will • Protects consumers from confusion

  4. Trademarks can be … • words • Coca Cola • phrases • “Have it your way” • symbols • sounds

  5. 586 • Intel learned that you cannot trademark numbers themselves • Pentium can be trademarked • You can trademark • 7-Up • Three-peat

  6. Dixie Cups Frisbee Hi-Liter Kitty Litter Kleenex Magic Marker Ping-Pong Popsicle Scotch Tape Sheetrock TV Dinners Wiffle Ball Cellophane Corn Flakes Dry Ice Lanolin Mimeograph Monopoly Pogo Stick Raisin Bran Shredded Wheat Thermos Toll House Trampoline Generics

  7. Strength of Protection • Fancifule.g., Kodak, Atari, Exxon • Arbitrarye.g., Apple, Amazon • Suggestivee.g., Compaq, Dairy Queen • Descriptive (must acquire a secondarymeaning)e.g., Computerland, Ben & Jerrys • Generice.g., aspirin, elevator

  8. Trademark Infringement • “Likelihood of confusion” standard • Court looks at factors like • similarity of goods • sophistication of consumers • length of time that mark has been used • wrongful intent

  9. Lexus/Lexis • Mead Data Corp. sued Toyota in 1989 • Toyota won • court found little chance of confusion • perspective luxury car buyer won’t come home with a legal database instead • and vice versa

  10. Trademark Dilution • Federal Trademark Dilution Act of 1996 • prior to 1996 28 states had anti-dilution laws • Must show • “famous” mark • “actual dilution” • Dilution by blurring • Dilution by tarnishment

  11. Microsoft Sandwich Shoppe • Makes a great sandwich • Becomes very popular • “Let’s go to Microsoft” • dilution by blurring? • But after the very unfortunate e-coli incident • dilution by tarnishment?

  12. Exemptions to FTDA • Fair use in comparative advertising • Noncommercial use • News reporting and commentary

  13. Lexus/Lexis Revisited • Would there be infringement today? • Would there be dilution today?

  14. Web Domain Names • New frontier for trademark law • Early “entrepreneurs” registered • www.mtv.com • www.abc.com • Today we call them cybersquatters

  15. www.delta.com 1996

  16. www.delta.com April 2000

  17. www.delta.com August 2000

  18. www.delta.com October 2000

  19. www.nissan.com 1996

  20. www.nissan.com 1999

  21. www.nissan.com 2006

  22. www.google.com

  23. www.froogle.com 2004

  24. www.booble.com 2004

  25. www.booble.com 2005

  26. www.peta.org 1996

  27. www.peta.org 2006

  28. www.candyland.com 1996

  29. www.candyland.com 1999

  30. Contested Domain Names • www.playboyxxx.com • www.asianplayboy.com • www.lucentsucks.com • www.amazom.com