The story so far... - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. The story so far... 7th March 1936: Rhineland Crisis 17th July 1936: Germany and Italy back Franco during the Spanish Civil War. 26th April 1937: Bombing of Guernica by German Condor legion May 1937: Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister of Britain. This marks a return to old-style diplomacy. 5th November 1937: Hossbach Memo stated Germany must overthrow Austria and Czechoslovakia. [only discovered at the ended of the war] The Czech Crisis

  2. 20th February 1938: Anthony Eden resigns as Foreign Secretary. Wanted action to be taken against dictators. 11th March 1938: The Czech Government was promised that: “Czechoslovakia has nothing to fear from the Reich.” 13th March 1938: Anschluss announced. 10th April 1938: Plebiscite in Austria returns 99% in favour of Anschluss. The Czech Crisis

  3. The Versailles Context Article 82 of Versailles Treaty states: “…the old frontier as it existed on 3rd August 1914, between Austria-Hungary and the German Empire will constitute the frontier between Germany and the Czechoslovak state.” The Czech Crisis

  4. The Sudeten CrisisMay to September 1938 The Czech Crisis

  5. Key Dates 20th May 1938: ‘May Crisis’ Czechs mobilise their troops in response to rumoured German troop movements. 4th Sept 1938: Benes offered Sudeten Germans autonomy but Henlein refused to negotiate. 12th Sept 1938: Hitler launches a verbal attack on Benes during a rally in Germany. Hitler and Henlein Benes The Czech Crisis

  6. 15th Sept 1938: Hitler proposes taking over the Sudetenland to Chamberlain at Berchesgaden. 22nd Sept 1938: Godesberg meeting where Hitler demands a date of take over. 27th Sept 1938: Chamberlain broadcasts on BBC radio about the horrors of war. 28th Sept 1938: ‘Black Wednesday’ Preparations for war throughout Europe. 29th Sept 1938: Munich Conference. 1st Oct 1938: German troops march into the Sudetenland. The Czech Crisis

  7. Meeting Hitler • Chamberlain was determined to avoid war and flew to meet Hitler three times in September 1938. • Air travel was risky, uncomfortable and unusual at that time especially for a man of Chamberlain’s age. The Czech Crisis Heston airport

  8. Berchtesgaden: 15th September 1938 Hitler proposes taking over the Sudetenland to Chamberlain.Chamberlain agrees that areas with over 50% German population are to be given to Germany. He leaves the meeting with the task of getting the Czech, French an British government to agree. Chamberlain told Hitler: “In principle I have nothing to say against the separation of Sudetenland from the rest of Czechoslovakia, provided that the practical difficulties could be overcome.” The Czech Crisis

  9. Godesberg: 22nd September 1938 Chamberlain was confident that the problem had been solved. He said at Heston airport prior to visit: “European peace is what I am aiming at, and I hope this journey may open the way to get it.” • Hitler rejected Chamberlain’s plan, “I am sorry. That its not enough”. • Lied when he said that Czech forces were massacring Germans but threatened to send an occupying force to stop it. • Wanted to occupy Sudetenland, including fortifications, with no compensation for lost Czech property or belongings. Hitler also said: “The Czech problem is the last territorial demand I have to make in Europe.” The Czech Crisis

  10. BBC speech: 27th September 1938 “How horrible and unbelievable that we should be getting ready for war, trying on gas masks and digging air raid shelters in Britain because of a faraway quarrel between people that we know nothing about.” Neville Chamberlain The Czech Crisis

  11. Munich: 29th September 1938 • At the Munich Conference Britain, France, Germany and Italy met to discuss the future of the Sudetenland. • Without consulting Czechoslovakia, it was agreed that Germany would occupy the Sudetenland on 1st October 1938. The Czech Crisis

  12. Peace For Our Time: 30th September 1938 We, the German Fuhrer and Chancellor and the British prime Minister, have had a further meeting today and are agreed in recognising that the question of Anglo-German relations is of the first importance for the two countries and for Europe. We regard the agreement signed last night symbolic of the desire of our two peoples never to go to war with one another again. We are resolved that the method adopted to deal with any other questions that may concern our two countries, and we are determined to continue our efforts to remove possible sources of difference and thus to contribute to assure the peace of Europe. During a private meeting, Chamberlain asks Hitler to sign an additional agreement. Chamberlain waved it to the crowds at Heston airport believing it to mean “peace for our time.” The Czech Crisis

  13. German occupation of the Sudetenland:1st October 1938 Germans troops entering the Sudetenland. The Czech Crisis

  14. Hitler crossed into the Sudetenland on 3 October 1938 and addresses German troops. The Czech Crisis

  15. What happened next? The Czech Crisis

  16. Entering Czechoslovakia, 15th March 1939 The Czech Crisis

  17. Summary The Czech Crisis