The Real History of The GUI Introduced By Lior Ur & Efrat Carmi What is GUI? Many of us may think of gooey GUI - Graphical User Interface
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Many of us may think of
An interface for issuing commands to a computer utilizing a pointing device, such as a mouse, that manipulates and activates graphical images on a monitor.
Jobs and cohort Steve Wozniak go back to their garage and stuff every idea and process they can remember from the Xerox tour into their new product:
Apple amazes the world with the GUI thing, and everyone wants to get their own computer
Xerox is confused and Microsoft’s Bill Gates is enraged!
Gates takes Job’s thievery one step further and brings out Apple-clone, Windows.
Microsoft succeeds to dodge an Apple lawsuit, And so Apple falls behind.
Windows takes over the world…
Well … not exactly
The true story is quite different
1940-1975: The early years
“The best way to predict the future is to invent it”
Alan Kay and an informal PARC slogan
1945 – Bush invents the “memex”
Vannevar Bush, a visionary scientist, invents the “memex”:
1962 – The first “mouse”
Douglas Engelbart, a scientist at Stanford Research Laboratory (now SRI), invented the first “mouse”, a wooden box on wheels that moves around the desktop, and takes the cursor with it on the display.
He called it:
“x-y position indicator”
First graphical video game -
Space War (1962)
1963 - The “sketchpad”
Ivan Sutherland, a grad student at MIT, submits as his thesis a program named “sketchpad”, that supported manipulation of objects on screen using a light pen, including:
Sutherland and his sketchpad
1968 - Engelbart creates NLS (oNLine System)
A hypermedia groupware system that featured:
The place GUI was born
PARC - Palo Alto Research Center
a computing “think tank”, where brilliant minds crank out ideas and implement them
Main ideas that came from PARC
Main ideas that came from PARC – cont.
Early 70’s at PARC
hand held, notebook-sized device (early laptop), where a person can touch the screen to access information
Xerox’s Alto computer (1974)
Alto computer - cont.
WYSIWYG - What You See Is What You Get
1975-1985: The origins of pc
“ There is no reason why anyone would want a computer in their home”
Kan Olson, President, Chairman & founder of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977
“So we went to Atari and said: hey, we’ve got this amazing thing, even built with some of your parts, and what do you think about funding us? …and they said ‘No’.
So then we went to Hewlett-Packard,
and they said, ‘Hey, we don’t need you. You haven’t got through college yet’ “.
Apple founder Steve Jobs on attempts to get Atari and HP interested in his and Steve Wozniak’s personal computer
The beginning of Apple
Jobs and Wozniak met at HP. Their careers begun by building (Wozniak) and selling (Jobs) “blue boxes” : illegal devices that scammed free phone calls from Ma Bell
The beginning of Apple
The beginning of Apple
…Followed by Apple
(which was unsuccessful)
1979 – Apple’s visit to PARC
First computer desktop – Xerox Star (1981)
“ The [Lisa] user will be able to carry out many functions, simply by pointing to a picture of what he wants done, rather than typing instructions.”
Time Magazine, 1983
Apple “Lisa” (1983)
Apple LISA - Desktop and 7/7
Macintosh(Mac) – 1984
Mac Toolbox (for Mac)
Macintosh(Mac) – cont.
1984 Super Bowl commercial
“The future lies with graphical windowing interface. Mouse cursor control, pull-down menus, dialog boxes, and the like are destined to take over the IBM PC and compatible world as well.”
W.F Zachmann, 1987
Microsoft joins the game
“640K ought to be enough for anybody”
Bill Gates, 1981
The beginning of Microsoft
1977 - Microsoft and Apple team up
“No Steve, I think it’s more like we both have a rich neighbor named Xerox, and you broke in to steal the TV set, and you found out I’d been there first, and you said, ‘Hey, that’s not fair!, I wanted to steal the TV set!”
1985 computer market
Commodore’s Amiga (1985)
Windows 1.0 (1985)
The Apple-Microsoft agreement
Windows 2.0 (1987)
files, folders and programs
The big GUI lawsuit
Mutual agreement to end the GUI dispute
1990 and on: The Windows Era
“I think Windows 3.0 will get a lot of attention; people will check it out, and before long they will all drift back to raw DOS. Once in a while they’ll boot Windows for some specific purpose, but many will put it in the closet with the commodore 64.”
John Dvorak, 1990
Windows 3.0 (1990)
Windows 3.1 (1992)
Followed by -
Win NT (1993)
IBM’s OS/2 warp (1994)
Microsoft Bob (1995)
Windows 95 (1995)
The GUI today
An educator, freelance writer, and self-taught PC user. Expert in Microsoft product optimization
Written 5 articles for SitePoint.
His hobbies include basketball, politics and spoiling his cats.