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The Real History of The GUI

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  1. The Real History of The GUI Introduced By Lior Ur & Efrat Carmi

  2. What is GUI? Many of us may think of gooey

  3. GUI - Graphical User Interface An interface for issuing commands to a computer utilizing a pointing device, such as a mouse, that manipulates and activates graphical images on a monitor.

  4. Why do we need GUI? • The idea of GUI derives from cognitive psychology – the study of how the brain deals with communication • Our brain works more efficiently with graphical icons & displays than with words

  5. Why do we need GUI? For example:

  6. GUI history – The Mythology December 1979: • The Apple team, Steve Jobs and his friends, enter Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) labs • They tour the place with childh like admiration while… memorizing schematics and taking notes

  7. GUI history – The Mythology Jobs and cohort Steve Wozniak go back to their garage and stuff every idea and process they can remember from the Xerox tour into their new product: The Macintosh!!!

  8. GUI history – The Mythology Apple amazes the world with the GUI thing, and everyone wants to get their own computer Xerox is confused and Microsoft’s Bill Gates is enraged!

  9. GUI history – The Mythology Gates takes Job’s thievery one step further and brings out Apple-clone, Windows. Microsoft succeeds to dodge an Apple lawsuit, And so Apple falls behind. And…

  10. GUI history – The Mythology Windows takes over the world…

  11. GUI history – The Mythology Well … not exactly The true story is quite different

  12. The real history of GUI Chapter 1

  13. The real history of GUI 1940-1975: The early years “The best way to predict the future is to invent it” Alan Kay and an informal PARC slogan

  14. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) 1945 – Bush invents the “memex” Vannevar Bush, a visionary scientist, invents the “memex”: • Acts as an external memory • Would make use “hyperlink” technology (items retrieved rapidly through indexing, keywords, cross references) • Reflected the idea of hypertext (where documents are linked to related documents) • Was never constructed

  15. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) MEMEX

  16. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) 1962 – The first “mouse” Douglas Engelbart, a scientist at Stanford Research Laboratory (now SRI), invented the first “mouse”, a wooden box on wheels that moves around the desktop, and takes the cursor with it on the display.

  17. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) He called it: “x-y position indicator”

  18. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) First graphical video game - Space War (1962) • MIT project • Including the first computer joystick

  19. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) 1963 - The “sketchpad” Ivan Sutherland, a grad student at MIT, submits as his thesis a program named “sketchpad”, that supported manipulation of objects on screen using a light pen, including: • Grabbing objects • Moving objects • Changing size

  20. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) Sutherland and his sketchpad

  21. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) 1968 - Engelbart creates NLS (oNLine System) A hypermedia groupware system that featured: • Use of mouse for graphics • Multiple tiled windows • Object addressing • Extensive use of linking • Videoconferencing • E-mail

  22. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) The place GUI was born PARC - Palo Alto Research Center a computing “think tank”, where brilliant minds crank out ideas and implement them

  23. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) Main ideas that came from PARC • Development of icons • Extension of ‘desktop metaphor’ into ‘office metaphor’– collection of data will be known as files, that can be organized into folders • Implementation of object concept • Cursor changes to show system mode and context • Overlapped and tiled windows

  24. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) Main ideas that came from PARC – cont. • Popup menus • Scroll bar • Push buttons • Check boxes • Dialog boxes • Multiple fonts & style in text • Move / copy / delete

  25. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) Early 70’s at PARC • Failing project called “Dynabook” : hand held, notebook-sized device (early laptop), where a person can touch the screen to access information • Alan Kay and others (from PARC) developed the Smalltalk programming language,with influences from “Logo” “Lisp” and the Sketchpad

  26. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) Smalltalk features • Object orientation • A multi platform virtual machine GUI features • Overlapping “windows” • Hierarchical menus • Bit-blt or “bit-blitting” - The protocol by which objects on the screen can be manipulated • Model-View-Controller

  27. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) Pygmalion – • The first program to be written under Smalltalk • Demonstrating that computer programming can be graphically based and not restricted to text • Attempts to provide the programmer visual and intuitive programming • Coined the term “icons”

  28. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) traditional mainframe

  29. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) Xerox’s Alto computer (1974) • First useable GUI • A “smaller”, portable replacement of mainframes • Started its life showing an image of Sesame Street’s “Cookie Monster” • Was not marketed

  30. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) Alto computer - cont. • Extensive use of the mouse • Pioneered the bitmapped display • Featured graphical driven apps. • Iconic representations for programs • Popup menus

  31. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) Alto’s Software • Word processor -“Gypsy” • The ability to cut/copy/paste with a mouse • Text editor - “Bravo” • Supported multiple fonts & style in text • First drawing program - “Markup” • First Painting program - “Superpaint” • WYSIWYG through bitmapping for “Gypsy” and “Bravo”

  32. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) WYSIWYG - What You See Is What You Get • Pronounced "wizzy-wig“. • Refers to displaying text and graphics on screen, the same as they will print. • To have WYSIWYG text, there must be an equivalent screen font for each printer font used

  33. The real history of GUI (1940-1975) WYSIWYG

  34. The real history of GUI Chapter 2

  35. The real history of GUI 1975-1985: The origins of pc “ There is no reason why anyone would want a computer in their home” Kan Olson, President, Chairman & founder of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977

  36. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) “So we went to Atari and said: hey, we’ve got this amazing thing, even built with some of your parts, and what do you think about funding us? …and they said ‘No’. So then we went to Hewlett-Packard, and they said, ‘Hey, we don’t need you. You haven’t got through college yet’ “. Apple founder Steve Jobs on attempts to get Atari and HP interested in his and Steve Wozniak’s personal computer

  37. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) The beginning of Apple Jobs and Wozniak met at HP. Their careers begun by building (Wozniak) and selling (Jobs) “blue boxes” : illegal devices that scammed free phone calls from Ma Bell

  38. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) The beginning of Apple • Jobs envisioned building personal desktop-size computers for the masses • 3/76 – Wozniak builds the first Apple • Apple  - a wooden boxed machine with LED display

  39. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) The beginning of Apple • 1976 – Apple is founded in Job’s garage • About 200 units of Apple ’s are sold • The team uses the money from Apple ’s sales to start the work on the Apple 

  40. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) Apple II

  41. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) Apple  (1977) • Featuring: • Color graphics • Video display • Inboard floppy disk • Game paddles • First spreadsheet – VisiCalc

  42. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) …Followed by Apple  (which was unsuccessful) Apple III

  43. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) 1979 – Apple’s visit to PARC • Apple negotiated a deal with Xerox: • 12/79 - Xerox allows Jobs and team to tour the place, take notes and make use of the ideas in their own creations • In exchange, Xerox got a block of Apple shares • The Apple team returned and started to work on Apple “Lisa”

  44. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) First computer desktop – Xerox Star (1981) • First true GUI driven PC featured: • Concept of desktop metaphor • Overlapping resizable windows • Extensive usage of icons • Sophisticated PARC mouse, that used laser beams • Star’s interface known as –WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus & Pointers)

  45. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) “ The [Lisa] user will be able to carry out many functions, simply by pointing to a picture of what he wants done, rather than typing instructions.” Time Magazine, 1983

  46. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) Apple “Lisa” (1983) • Lisa – Local Integrated Software Architecture • Development started at 1979, after the trip to PARC • First of a new GUI-based PC family • developed for business use • Eventually failed because of the high cost and lack of software

  47. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) Apple Lisa • Lisa featured: • Click-and-drag capability • Pull-down menu • 7\7 – integrated software including word processor, spreadsheet, drawing program, chart builder and more • Desktop manager taken from PARC (the original plan didn’t have any icons) • Smalltalk influence

  48. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) Apple LISA - Desktop and 7/7

  49. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) Apple LISA

  50. The real history of GUI (1975-1985) After Lisa • Apple worked with psychologists, artists and ordinary users to improve Lisa’s interface • Also provided California • schools with free LISA’s in order to enhance software and GUI