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Chapter 11, Lesson 4

Chapter 11, Lesson 4

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Chapter 11, Lesson 4

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  1. Chapter 11,Lesson 4 ACOS #10: Describe political, social, and economic events between 1803 and 1860 that led to the expansion of the territory of the United States.

  2. Key Vocabulary Words • Wagon train – a line of covered wagons that moved together across the country. • Forty-niner – a person who went to look for gold in California around 1849. • Gold rush – the quick movement of people to California and other places following the discovery of gold. • Boomtown – a town offering many chances to make money and filled with people just arriving. A town that grows, or booms, very quickly.

  3. Trails West • In 1824, Crow Indians showed a trapper a way through the Rocky Mountains that was wide enough for wagons. • The route was called the “South Pass.” • By the end of the 1850’s, thousands of people had traveled through the South Pass on a route know as the Oregon Trail. • The Oregon Trail was about 2,000 miles long. • It started in Missouri and stretched west across the Rocky Mountains to present day Oregon.

  4. Oregon Trail

  5. Marcus and Narcissa Whitman were two of the first pioneers to travel to Oregon. • They were missionaries who wanted to teach American Indians about Christianity. • The Whitman mission became a place where travelers could rest. • John Frémont explored parts of the west and helped make maps of the Oregon Trail. • He wrote reports describing the beautiful land. • People on the Oregon Trail used Frémont’s maps and reports as guides.

  6. Wagon Trains • The first large group of about 1,000 people set out on the Oregon Trail in 1873. • They came from Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee. • They were looking for good, inexpensive land. • Pioneers traveled by wagon train. • A wagon train was a line of covered wagons that moved together. • Oxen, mules, or horses pulled the wagons.

  7. Travelers on the Oregon Trail faced injuries, diseases, bad weather, lack of food, and water. • One woman described the trail in her journal: “Not a drop of water, nor a spear of grass to be seen, nothing but barren hills, bare and broken rock, sand and dust. • Despite the hardships, many people settled in Oregon. • President Polk wanted Oregon to belong to the United States. • At the time, Oregon was claimed by both the United States and Britain. • In 1846, President Polk signed a treaty with Britain to set the border between the United States and Canada. • In 1848, this land became the Oregon Territory.

  8. Pioneers took other trails to the west. • Some people traveled on the Mormon Trail were members of the Latter-Day Saints Church, founded in New York in 1830. These people were called Mormons. • Some people did not like the Mormon’s beliefs and would not let them practice their religion. • In 1847, Brigham Young, a Mormon leader, took his people west to present-day Utah.

  9. The Oregon Trail • The Oregon Trail Video

  10. The California Gold Rush • Before the 1700’s, California Indians lived in villages where they hunted, gathered plants, and fished. • When California became part of New Spain, many Indians were forced to live on missions. • When Mexico gained independence, California became part of it. • The Mexican citizens built large ranches and forced American Indians to work on these ranches. • In 1848 when California joined the United States, the people became U. S. citizens. • Very little changed for American Indians.

  11. The California Gold Rush • Gold was discovered in California that same year. • Thousands of people from the United States, Mexico, China, Europe, and South America rushed to California to dig for gold. • These people became know as the forty-niners. • A forty-niner was a miner who went to California around 1849. • More than 250,000 people went to California to look for gold. • A gold rush takes place when many people hurry to the same area to look for gold. • Boomtowns sprang up near the gold mines. • A boomtown is a town whose population booms, or grows very quickly.

  12. After the Gold Rush • The California Gold Rush lasted about 5 years. • Only a few people actually found gold. • Some forty-niners went back home, but thousands stayed and settled in California. • The Gold Rush changed California. • Miners and farmers killed California Indians and took their land. • Newcomers forced many property owners off their land. • Cities grew. • California became a state. • Can watch ‘Gold Rush’ video 25:12 minutes

  13. Test Question: • How did the California Gold Rush change the lives of many Californios? Californio property owners were forced off their land.