Chapter 11,Lesson 4 ACOS #10: Describe political, social, and economic events between 1803 and 1860 that led to the expansion of the territory of the United States.
Key Vocabulary Words • Wagon train – a line of covered wagons that moved together across the country. • Forty-niner – a person who went to look for gold in California around 1849. • Gold rush – the quick movement of people to California and other places following the discovery of gold. • Boomtown – a town offering many chances to make money and filled with people just arriving. A town that grows, or booms, very quickly.
Trails West • In 1824, Crow Indians showed a trapper a way through the Rocky Mountains that was wide enough for wagons. • The route was called the “South Pass.” • By the end of the 1850’s, thousands of people had traveled through the South Pass on a route know as the Oregon Trail. • The Oregon Trail was about 2,000 miles long. • It started in Missouri and stretched west across the Rocky Mountains to present day Oregon.
Marcus and Narcissa Whitman were two of the first pioneers to travel to Oregon. • They were missionaries who wanted to teach American Indians about Christianity. • The Whitman mission became a place where travelers could rest. • John Frémont explored parts of the west and helped make maps of the Oregon Trail. • He wrote reports describing the beautiful land. • People on the Oregon Trail used Frémont’s maps and reports as guides.
Wagon Trains • The first large group of about 1,000 people set out on the Oregon Trail in 1873. • They came from Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee. • They were looking for good, inexpensive land. • Pioneers traveled by wagon train. • A wagon train was a line of covered wagons that moved together. • Oxen, mules, or horses pulled the wagons.
Travelers on the Oregon Trail faced injuries, diseases, bad weather, lack of food, and water. • One woman described the trail in her journal: “Not a drop of water, nor a spear of grass to be seen, nothing but barren hills, bare and broken rock, sand and dust. • Despite the hardships, many people settled in Oregon. • President Polk wanted Oregon to belong to the United States. • At the time, Oregon was claimed by both the United States and Britain. • In 1846, President Polk signed a treaty with Britain to set the border between the United States and Canada. • In 1848, this land became the Oregon Territory.
Pioneers took other trails to the west. • Some people traveled on the Mormon Trail were members of the Latter-Day Saints Church, founded in New York in 1830. These people were called Mormons. • Some people did not like the Mormon’s beliefs and would not let them practice their religion. • In 1847, Brigham Young, a Mormon leader, took his people west to present-day Utah.
The Oregon Trail • The Oregon Trail Video
The California Gold Rush • Before the 1700’s, California Indians lived in villages where they hunted, gathered plants, and fished. • When California became part of New Spain, many Indians were forced to live on missions. • When Mexico gained independence, California became part of it. • The Mexican citizens built large ranches and forced American Indians to work on these ranches. • In 1848 when California joined the United States, the people became U. S. citizens. • Very little changed for American Indians.
The California Gold Rush • Gold was discovered in California that same year. • Thousands of people from the United States, Mexico, China, Europe, and South America rushed to California to dig for gold. • These people became know as the forty-niners. • A forty-niner was a miner who went to California around 1849. • More than 250,000 people went to California to look for gold. • A gold rush takes place when many people hurry to the same area to look for gold. • Boomtowns sprang up near the gold mines. • A boomtown is a town whose population booms, or grows very quickly.
After the Gold Rush • The California Gold Rush lasted about 5 years. • Only a few people actually found gold. • Some forty-niners went back home, but thousands stayed and settled in California. • The Gold Rush changed California. • Miners and farmers killed California Indians and took their land. • Newcomers forced many property owners off their land. • Cities grew. • California became a state. • Can watch ‘Gold Rush’ video 25:12 minutes
Test Question: • How did the California Gold Rush change the lives of many Californios? Californio property owners were forced off their land.