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SP105 Listening. Dr. Brennan Welcome to the Class!. HURIER Model. The letters in HURIER represents six interrelated listening processes: Hearing – Ch.3 Understanding – Ch.4 Remembering – Ch. 5 Interpreting – Ch. 6 Evaluating – Ch. 7 Responding – Ch.8. Hearing. The process of hearing:.

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Sp105 listening l.jpg

SP105Listening

Dr. Brennan

Welcome to the Class!


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HURIER Model

  • The letters in HURIER represents six interrelated listening processes:

  • Hearing – Ch.3

  • Understanding – Ch.4

  • Remembering – Ch. 5

  • Interpreting – Ch. 6

  • Evaluating – Ch. 7

  • Responding – Ch.8



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The process of hearing:

  • When you think of the process of listening, what are the consequences of not controlling your attention?


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The process of hearing:

  • The HURIER model emphasizes that hearing involves the reception and processing of sound.


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The mechanics of hearing, 3 stages: concentrate on sound.

  • 1. Reception of sound waves.

  • 2. Perception of sound in the

    brain.

  • 3. Auditory association.


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Reception of sound waves. concentrate on sound.

  • First, sound travels in waves as it moves through the air.

  • These waves bump into air molecules and create pressure.

  • When air molecules are pushed together sound waves may pass through the air at speeds of up to 760 mph.

  • It is actually the sound waves we hear.


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The Ear concentrate on sound.

  • How useful is your outer ear, that piece of cartilage and skin sticking out from the side of your head?


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The Ear concentrate on sound.

  • Sound waves then cause the eardrum membrane to vibrate.

  • Three small bones on the other side of the drum – the hammer, stirrup and anvil, amplify these vibrations.


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The Ear concentrate on sound.

  • Second, the sound waves reach the inner ear. Here the cochlea, a snail-shaped structure filed with liquid takes over.

  • Inside the cochlea are hairlike nerve cells that change pressure vibrations to nerve impulses.

  • These impulses are transmitted to the auditory nerve and then the brain.


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The Ear concentrate on sound.

  • Finally, you perceive sound.

  • Understanding these sounds begins the next step in the process of listening.


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Levels of Hearing: concentrate on sound.

  • Three different sound levels.

  • Primary level – hearing is voluntary.

  • In the primary level, you select the information you want to concentrate on, deliberately tuning to certain sounds while ignoring other sounds.

  • For example, a mother might hear her child’s laughter or cry in a crowded store.


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Levels of Hearing: concentrate on sound.

  • Secondary level – individual’s involuntary or autonomic nervous system is at work.

  • For example, focusing on one task such as talking on the telephone and still be conscious of your spouse coming into the room to get something or simply sit down.


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Levels of Hearing: concentrate on sound.

  • The last level, tertiary – is where we have little or no control over what we hear.

  • The central nervous system is not involved in processing the stimuli, rather the autonomic system responds to a sound simply because of its intensity – like the loud “BANG” of a box that fell onto the floor or the sound of a fire alarm going off.


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Characteristics of Sound: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • Repetition: Listeners pay attention more to a sound that is repeated than to a sound that occurs only once.

  • Often, after hearing a sound once, people consciously wait for the sound to be repeated in order to confirm one’s impression.

  • For example: Martin Luther King’s “I Have A Dream Speech.”


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Characteristics of Sound: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • Change: A significant element in securing attention is change. Speakers use vocal variety to command attention and provide emphasis.

  • For example, variation in pitch, volume, intonation, rate, etc. – known as paralanguage.


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Characteristics of Sound: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • Novelty: Mindless conversations or communication rituals. Even though most adults attend to messages in 8 to 15 second intervals, novelty may extend this focus of attention.

  • If a communicator does the unexpected, he or she is likely to hold attention better than if a listener correctly anticipates the speaker’s behavior – for example, in the greeting ritual; Hi, how are you? Fine and you?As opposed to, Hi, how are you? My friend died last night.


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Characteristics of Sound: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • Intensity: the intensity of sound is another dimension that influences the likelihood that others will hear a particular stimulus.

  • The intensity of sound commands attention because it is perceived at the tertiary level – people respond automatically.


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Auditory discrimination: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • Auditory discrimination involves distinguishing different sounds and then identifying what you have heard.

  • For example, a mother might hear her child’s voice in a crowded mall after filtering out other competing sounds.


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Auditory discrimination: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • One’s ability to localize a sound source is a critical aspect of the listening process since it permits certain sounds to be attended to in the presence of other competing sounds.


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Auditory discrimination: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • Sophisticated discriminatory skills involve activities such as recognizing sound structure of a language.

  • For example: Hyper-corrective grammar or learning a foreign language or even recognizing certain songs on the radio.


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Auditory discrimination: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • In learning a new language, during the information process, the new stimulus (words) is matched to previously learned sounds – this process is called auditory association.


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Dichotic Listening: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • Dichotic listening occurs when a person receives two messages simultaneously –

  • Denotative

  • Connotative


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Shadowing: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • Shadowing occurs when you repeat a continuous verbal message as you hear it.

  • In other words, following the verbal message word by word to ensure complete understanding.


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Receiver Apprehension or Listener Apprehension: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • Just as some people are fearful of presenting a speech or speaking up during a meeting, research suggests that some people are fearful of receiving information, thus “receiver apprehension or listener apprehension.”


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Receiver Apprehension impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • Receiver apprehension is being fearful of misunderstanding or misinterpreting the messages spoken by others or not being able to adjust psychologically to messages expressed by others.


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Receiver Apprehension impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • Some people may just be fearful of receiving new information and being unable to understand it.

  • Apprehension may also be a characteristic or a pattern in the way some people respond psychologically to information.


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Receiver Apprehension impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • Some people may not be able to make sense out of what they heard which causes them to become anxious or fearful of listening to others.

  • People who are fearful of receiving information remember less of the messages being sent to them.


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Tips for coping with receiver apprehension: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • 1. In some instances (such as a classroom) you might be able to tape record (therefore not having to be concerned about getting each and every point) your professor.

  • 2.You can also become actively involved in the listening process by:

    • A. Taking notes

    • B.  Mentally summarizing and repeating

      the information to yourself.


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Appreciative Listening: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • What is it and why do we do it?


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Appreciative Listening: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • Wolvin and Coakley (1996) defined appreciative listening as a “process of listening in order to obtain sensory stimulation or enjoyment through the works and experiences of others.”


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Developing Appreciative Listening: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • 1. Identifying specific things that

    give you listening pleasure.

    • What do you like to listen to?

  • 2. Deliberately searching for ways to expand the focus of your appreciative listening.

    • Don’t get stuck in a rut.


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Developing Appreciative Listening: impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.

  • 3. Developing a positive attitude and willingness to spend time listening appreciatively.

    • Just do it!


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Exercise impossible to avoid hearing and responding to them.