Sedative - Hypnotic Drugs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Sedative - Hypnotic Drugs

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    1. Sedative - Hypnotic Drugs seeking effects that include calming, sleep and intoxication

    2. HSS 4933 - Drug Education

    3. HSS 4933 - Drug Education Why are these drugs used? Sedation Coping with stress and anxiety Smoothing effects of stimulants Potentiation of narcotics Treatment of serious mental disorders Pleasurable sensations, including intoxication

    4. General Characteristics Widespread CNS depression Potentiation / synergism with other depressant drugs Tolerance Physiological and / or psychological dependence (sedativism) Cross-tolerance Cross-dependence

    5. HSS 4933 - Drug Education Barbiturates Uses Ultrashort acting (e.g., thiopental): surgical anesthetics Short-intermediate acting (e.g., secobarbital): sedative-hypnotics Long acting (e.g., phenobarbital): sedative hypnotics; anticonvulsants Problems most commonly abused (specifically the short-intermediate group) rapid development of tolerance & dependence withdrawal creates a medical emergency

    6. HSS 4933 - Drug Education Non-Barbiturate Sedative Hypnotics Uses Alternative to barbiturates Specific to treatment for sleeplessness Examples: chloral hydrate, ethchlorvynol, and some of the benzodiazepines (flurazepam, triazolam, temazepam) Problems adverse drug reactions (especially with triazolam) abuse potential (especially with street versions of methaqualone) rapid tolerance & dependence rebound effects

    7. HSS 4933 - Drug Education Anatomy of Sleep Non-Rapid-Eye-Movement (non-REM) sleep: deep level of sleep characterized by drops in blood pressure, heart and breathing rates, and body temperature; slow, even brain wave activity (serotonin) Rapid-Eye-Movement (REM) sleep: shallow level of sleep characterized by increases and fluctuations in blood pressure, heart and breathing rates; complete relaxation of muscles in arms and legs resulting in temporary paralysis; high level of brain activity (norepinephrine)

    8. HSS 4933 - Drug Education Anatomy of Sleep

    9. HSS 4933 - Drug Education Anatomy of Sleep REM Sleep Latency: from onset of sleep to the first REM (70 - 100 minutes) hypnogogy Sleep Cycle: from one REM sleep period to the next (~ 90 minutes); 4 ? 6 cycles per night

    10. HSS 4933 - Drug Education Anatomy of Sleep

    11. HSS 4933 - Drug Education Sleep Deprivation Stage 4 Deprivation - hypoactive; depressed response state exercise increases length of Stage 4 REM Deprivation - hyperactive; increased response state

    12. HSS 4933 - Drug Education REM Rebound Most sedative - hypnotic sleep medicines depress the amount of REM and increase the amount of NREM (especially Stages 3 & 4) Once body is medicine-free, REM increases substantially (latency decreases, frequency and length increases) Best Choices: flurazepam (Rx); diphenhydramine (OTC); l-tryptophan (amino acid)

    13. HSS 4933 - Drug Education Anti - Anxiety Medicines Treatment of anxiety and neurotic conditions (including physical manifestations), not psychoses Benzodiazepines: diazepam (Valium) and alprazolam (Xanax) Beta-blockers: oxprenolon and propranolol

    14. HSS 4933 - Drug Education Inhalants Commercial solvents Aerosols Anesthetics

    15. HSS 4933 - Drug Education Signs of Inhalant Abuse Slurred speech Glassy eyes Skin discoloration and rashes (mouth & nose) Severe headaches Nervous tremors Coughing and sneezing Loss of appetite / weight