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School to home transfer Investigating School to Home Transfer: some issues from environmental education practice and theory Overview A current issue Review findings Own conclusions Future directions motivating over 6,000 families to make over 10,000 environmental changes

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School to home transfer

Investigating School to Home Transfer: some issues fromenvironmental education practice and theory


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Overview

  • A current issue

  • Review findings

  • Own conclusions

  • Future directions


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motivating over 6,000 families to make over 10,000 environmental changes

http://ecochildsplay.com/2008/09/24/%e2%80%9ctoo-cool-for-school%e2%80%9d-enrichment-programs-activate-youth/#more-1692


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Why?

“Marketers know that KIDS influence parents, we’re just taking the same dynamic and applying it to global warming,”

http://ecochildsplay.com/2008/09/24/%e2%80%9ctoo-cool-for-school%e2%80%9d-enrichment-programs-activate-youth/

Adult generations have the power to affect change:

‘yeah, yeah, they should really because when you are a little kid you don’t really, even if you don’t understand it you won’t be able to do much because it is more kind of your parents that … so you kind of have to persuade your parents to do it to actually make a big change’

KIDFLUENCE


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Why not?

‘… using children has got obvious appeal as a campaign tactic. After all, they make natural campaigners - no shades of grey, no nuanced arguments, just loads of passion and clarity…’

  • http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/feb/01/schools.ethicalliving

In his book, Russell tries to stir up hatred against ‘Groans’ (grown-ups) and their wasteful ways, and encourages children to become ‘Guardians of the Glorious Green Future’, nagging until their parents sign a ‘Glorious Green Charter http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php

‘…prerequisites for those people that turn youngsters into child soldiers and suicide bombers; it all boils down to the ease with which they can be indoctrinated and manipulated’


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Research

  • Nine papers spanning 2 decades (1992 to 2008) researched in both the developed (Europe, Australia, USA and Canada) and the developing (Costa Rica and Mexico) world

  • Intervention

  • Pre and post test (often)

  • Control group (often)

  • Local focus

  • Limited potential for transfer leading to superficial behaviour changes or increased awareness (ESD 1)


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Sutherland and Ham, 1992

  • Ethnographic case study in Costa Rica

  • pre and post interviews & family observations

  • Little or no ‘deliberate transfer’

  • ‘…programs that consider adults as audiences should not rely on children as messengers since the transfer is not dependable or reliable’

  • Simple behaviour change (financial savings)

  • Parents ‘stifle’ communication from children

  • Empowering children

  • Upsetting ‘power relations’

  • ‘inadvertent transfer’

  • ‘It probably already happens’


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Uzzell, 1994, 1999

  • Action competence and experiential learning

  • Large study involving 4 programmes in 4 European countries

  • Limited transfer observed in 3 programmes

  • Portugal

    • importance of political context

    • improvement in socio-political status from environmental exploitation

  • Uzzell concludes that:


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EFFECTIVE WHEN

  • Two-way communication and dialogue occurs

  • The environment is already a topic of conversation and something about which the parents have a pre-existing concern

  • The parent willingly acknowledges the ‘expert status’ of the child

    BUT

  • Method can raise concern amongst children about ‘minority status’

  • Poor self esteem and negative attitudes towards education are barriers

  • ‘Current’ models of schooling do not encourage it


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Local Community

Model 2: local communities invited into the school (1) Dealing with actual environmental problems (2) Breaking down barriers between school and local community: environmental education carried out in local communities. (3) Action-oriented: the development of action possibilities.

School


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Local Community

Model 3:the school as a guest in the local community. (1) Dealing with actual environmental problems. (2) Breaking down barriers between school and local community: environmental education carried out in local communities. (3) Action-oriented: the development of action

possibilities.

School


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Solution

Local Community

Model 4: the school as social agent (Dialogue model). (1) Dealing with actual environmental problems (2) Breaking down barriers between school and local community: environmental education carried out in local communities; students active in community in school time (3) Action-oriented: the development of action possibilities; concrete actions in the local community, both direct (e.g. waste, traffic, etc.) and indirect (influencing others, e.g. parents, politicians, planners

School


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Ballantyne et al (2001)

  • Involving parents in homework activities and preparation of presentations to peers about

  • A local focus enhances the effectiveness of school to home transfer

  • Involving local community members

  • Emotional engagement with the issues (including enjoyment)

  • Enthusiasm and engagement of teachers


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Vaughen et al (1999)

  • Scarlet Macaw population in Costa Rica

  • Multiple choice pre- and posttest

  • Involved follow-up post test 8 months later

  • Programme designed to involve parents in homework activities (cfBallantyneet al)

  • Evidence of community learning: parental control group displayed significantly improved results in the 2ndposttest


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Schneller (2008)

  • Longitudinal study in Mexico

  • Lateral learning (peer tutoring)

  • 10 of 11 students reported change in behaviour of family

  • 14 of 21 students reported change in behaviour of family

  • Reported impact of programmes appear highly effective at producing behaviour change

  • ‘It has been positive because the things that she is learning in the class she is bringing home to us’

    BUT

  • Sea turtles bring tourism

  • Garbage affects well-being


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My research

  • Qualitative

  • Exploratory approach (no intervention)

  • Research

  • internet administered surveys to parents and students (structured)

  • student mediated interviews of students (semi-structured)


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Strands

  • family discussions about school work

  • family involvement with sustainability and environmental issues

  • perception of children’s ability to teach parents within the family

  • reactions to the concept of ‘positive pester power’ and ‘local perspectives’ in teaching at the school

  • usefulness of the above in eliciting behavioural changes and learning within families


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Findings

  • Children at this institution can teach their parents and can influence their parents’ commitment to sustainability

  • school to home transfer is not necessarily enhanced by a local focus here

  • although ‘positive pester power’ might be an effective way of encouraging pro-environmental behaviour, the children interviewed at this school are not enthusiastic about engaging in it

  • there is little or no reported evidence of learning spreading into the community as a result of school to home transfer


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Incidental findings

  • ‘…it means that they know that paying for my education is paying off! ‘

  • Siblings

  • ‘because it’s like, wow! I taught them something’

  • The decision to discuss topics with parents should be left up to the child

  • ‘Polar bears dying’ or ‘really cool stuff’

  • Parental influence on child


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Future directions

  • Nudge not noodge (Thaler and Sunstein, 2008)

  • Multi-directional; multi-generational

  • Internet fora and discussion groups

  • ECM and Sustainable School Initiative

  • Impact of prior engagement

  • ESD 2 ( ESD 1?)


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Solution

Local Community

Model 4: the school as social agent (Dialogue model). (1) Dealing with actual environmental problems (2) Breaking down barriers between school and local community: environmental education carried out in local communities; students active in community in school time (3) Action-oriented: the development of action possibilities; concrete actions in the local community, both direct (e.g. waste, traffic, etc.) and indirect (influencing others, e.g. parents, politicians, planners

School


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References

  • Ballantyne, Roy, Connell, Sharon and Fien, John (1998) 'Students as Catalysts of Environmental Change: a framework for researching intergenerational influence through environmental education', EnvironmentalEducation Research, 4:3, 285 – 298

  • Ballantyne, Roy, Fien, John and Packer, Jan (2001) 'School Environmental Education Programme Impacts upon Student and Family Learning: acase study analysis', Environmental Education Research, 7:1, 23 - 37


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  • Duvall, J & Zint, M (2007) A Review of Research on the Effectiveness of Environmental Education in Promoting Intergenerational Learning in The Journal of Environmental Education 38: 4, 14-24

  • Leeming, F.C., Porter, B.E., Dwyer, W.O., Cobern, M.K., & Oliver, D.P. (1997) Effects of participation in class activities on children's environmental attitudes and knowledge. Journal of Environmental Education, 28, 33-42.

  • Legault, L., & Pelletier, L. (2000). Impact of an environmental education programme on students’ and parents’ attitudes, motivation, and behaviours. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 32, 243–250.


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  • Sutherland, D., & Ham, S. (1992). Child-to-parent transfer of environmental ideology in Costa Rican families: An ethnographic case study. The Journal of Environmental Education, 23:3, 9-16

  • Schneller, A. J. (2008) 'Environmental service learning: outcomes of innovative pedagogy in Baja California Sur, Mexico', Environmental Education Research, 14(3):291 — 307

  • Uzzell, David (1999) 'Education for Environmental Action in the Community: new roles and relationships', Cambridge Journal of Education, 29:3, 397 – 413

  • Vaughan, C., Gack, J., Solorazano, H., & Ray, R. (1999). The effect of environmental education on schoolchildren, the parents, and community members: A study of intergenerational and intercommunity learning. Journal of Environmental Education, 34(3), 12–21