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Scaffolding: Your Key to Stability. Presented By: Georgia Tech Occupational Safety and Health Program. 29 CFR 1926 Subpart L. 1926.450 Scope and Application 1926.451 General Requirements 1926.452 Additional Requirements 1926.453 Aerial Lifts 1926.454 Training Requirements

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scaffolding your key to stability

Scaffolding: Your Key to Stability

Presented By: Georgia Tech Occupational Safety and Health Program

29 cfr 1926 subpart l
29 CFR 1926 Subpart L
  • 1926.450 Scope and Application
  • 1926.451 General Requirements
  • 1926.452 Additional Requirements
  • 1926.453 Aerial Lifts
  • 1926.454 Training Requirements
    • Appendices A thru E
most frequently cited hazards
Most Frequently Cited Hazards
  • Scaffolds above 10 ft.-Fall Protection
  • Scaffold Access
  • Scaffold Working Levels-Decked
  • Aerial Lift-Harness/Lanyard
  • Training in use of scaffolds
national statistics
A significant percentage of personnel in construction (65) work from scaffolds routinely

There are approximately 50 fatalities related to scaffolds each year.

There are approximately 4500 employee injuries each year as a result of using scaffolds.

For the period 1980-1985 falls from scaffolds accounted for 17% of the fatalities for falls from elevations.

National Statistics
georgia statistics
Georgia Statistics
  • The total number of fall related fatalities in 2000 was 25.
  • The number of fatalities involving scaffolds were 6.
  • Falls from scaffolds represented twenty five percent of the total fatalities in the state
  • Injured workers revealed that 72% of the accidents were caused by:
    • Platform failure
    • Support failure
    • Slipping
    • Being struck by an object
requirements for competent person
Requirements for Competent Person
  • A competent person is a person on the project who has knowledge to identify and the authority to correct site hazards
    • OSHA 10 or 30 hour training card could support the fact you had training and are knowledgeable
    • The 10 or 30 hour OSHA training card alone does not necessarily mean you are a competent person
requirements for competent person1
Requirements for Competent Person
  • Scaffolds have to be inspected daily by a competent person
  • Scaffolds must be erected, moved, dismantled or altered under the supervision of a competent person
  • Work by qualified workers selected by the competent person
capacity 29 cfr 1926 451 a
Capacity 29 CFR 1926.451(a)
  • Each scaffold and scaffold component must be capable of supporting four times the intended weight.
  • Direct connections to the roof and counterweights of suspended scaffolds must resist four times the tipping moment or 1.5 times tipping moment imposed by scaffold operating at stall load
capacity 29 cfr 1926 451 a1
Capacity 29 CFR 1926.451(a)
  • Suspension ropes including hardware must support six times the maximum intended load
  • The stall load of any scaffold hoist shall not exceed three times its rated load.
  • Scaffolds must be designed by a qualified person and loaded accordingly.
platform construction 29 cfr 1926 451 b
Platform Construction 29 CFR 1926.451(b)
  • All working levels of scaffolds are required to be fully decked.
    • No gaps greater than one inch allowed
  • Each scaffold platform shall be at least 48 inches wide.
    • Ladder jack, roof bracket and pump jack can be 12 inches wide.
platform construction 29 cfr 1926 451 b1
Platform Construction 29 CFR 1926.451(b)
  • The front edge shall not be more than 14 inches from face (if in excess rails required).
  • The end of each platform will extend over the center line by six inches (unless hooked).
platform construction
Requirement for over hang based on length:

10 ft or less platform not to exceed 12 inches

More than 10 ft not to exceed 18 inches

For extended platforms overlap over supports by 12 inches (unless secured)

Wood platforms shall not be covered with opaque finishes.

Components (different) shall not be mixed unless they fit (integrity maintained).

Platform Construction
supported scaffolds 29 cfr 1926 451 c
Supported Scaffolds, 29 CFR 1926.451(c)
  • Scaffolds with a width to height of more than 4:1 need to be restrained
  • Guys, ties, and braces installed in accordance to manufacturer
  • Ties, guys, wires must be used for eccentric load
supported scaffolds 29 cfr 1926 451 c1
Supported Scaffolds, 29 CFR 1926.451(c)
  • Supported poles, legs, and posts need to bear on base plates and mudsills or other firm foundation.
  • Footing must be rigid and sound.
  • No unstable objects for supports or platform.
  • Legs, posts, frames must be plumb and braced to prevent swaying.
scaffold access 29 cfr 1926 451 e
When scaffold platforms are 2 feet above or below a point of access ladders, stair towers or personnel hoist must be used.

Cross braces can not be climbed.

Ladders set up so not to tip scaffold.

Stairway type ladders can be used in 1926.451(e)(3)

Railing has to be provided

Ramps 1926.451(e)(5)

Rails over 6 feet

No slope greater than 20 degrees

Scaffold Access, 29 CFR 1926.451(e)
scaffold access
Integral prefabricated scaffold access frames:

Designed and constructed as ladder rungs

Rung length of 8 inches

Uniform space

Direct Access shall only be used when scaffold is not more than 14” horizontal and 24” vertical away.

Safe means of access shall be provided during erecting or dismantling as determined by competent person.

Scaffold Access
scaffold use 1926 451 f
Scaffolds shall not be excessively loaded

Inspection by competent person before each shift

Damaged scaffold immediately repaired or replaced.

Maintain adequate distance from power lines (3 ft for less than 300 V and 10 ft for greater than 300)

Must not work on slippery platforms, debris or during high winds.

Standing on objects to increase height prohibited.

Ladder may be used on wide area scaffold.

Scaffold Use 1926.451(f)
scaffold use
Scaffold Use
  • Scaffolds must be inspected before use each shift by competent person.
  • All damaged components must be repaired or replaced immediately.
fall protection 29 cfr 1926 451 g
Required on all scaffolds greater than 10 feet.

Boatswains chair,float scaffold or similar require fall arrest.

Suspension scaffold requires rails and fall arrest system (independent life line).

Rail system design:

Top rail installed between 38 and 45 inches

mid rail between top and working surface

Finished components must with stand:

A force 200 pounds for top rail

150 pounds for mid rail

Fall Protection, 29 CFR 1926.451(g)
fall protection
Guardrails must be free of sharp edges.

Ends of rails must be constructed so it does overhang the terminal posts

Steel or plastic bands are not acceptable as railing

Cross brace may be used as a mid rail if it meets the height requirement (cross between 20-30 inches)

Falling object requirements are:

Employees on scaffold(in addition to hard hats) must be protected by toe boards, debris nets or canopy

Area below must be protected by barricades, canopies, toe boards on scaffolds over 10 feet

Toe boards- withstand 50 pounds of force and be 3.5 inches wide.

Fall Protection
additional scaffolds supported 29 cfr 1926 452
Tube and coupler:

The existing platform shall not be moved until bearers are set

X bracing installation

Couplers have to made of structural steel

Scaffolding over 125 ft. have to be designed by registered engineer

Fabricated Frame:

The existing platform shall remain until the frames are set/braced

Frames and panels shall be braced (joined with stack pin

Scaffolding over 125 ft. have to be designed by registered engineer

Additional Scaffolds-Supported, 29 CFR 1926.452
additional scaffold supported
Horse scaffolds:

Limited to two tiers (10 ft.)

Horses arranged directly over each other

Legs nailed down and tiers braced

Crawling boards:

Extend from peak to eaves and secured to roof by ridge hooks or equivalent

Pump jack scaffolds:

Bracket must have two positive grips

Poles secured at the top and bottom

Work bench is not a platform

Continuous length poles joined at seam parallel to bracket

Mending plates must be installed at 2X4 splices for strength

Additional Scaffold-Supported
additional scaffolds supported
Ladder jack scaffolds:

Not to exceed 20 feet

Ladder meet requirement of part X

No bridging of platform

Ladders must be provided with device to prevent slipping

Constructed to bear on side rails and rungs or rungs (if rungs at length of 10 inches)

Window jack scaffold:

Attached to window opening and not used to place planks between scaffolds

Step, trestle, and ladder scaffolds:

Platform not placed higher than second highest rung and ladder secured

Ladders designed to part X

Additional Scaffolds-Supported
additional requirements suspended
Swing Stages:

Platform limited to 36”

Platform must be securely fastened to hangars

Platforms shall be of the ladder, plank, or beam type

Two point scaffolds shall not be bridged together unless bridged and hoist is appropriately sized

Multi level scaffolds:

Equipped with independent support lines (equal to number of suspension points) and not attached to the same point as suspension ropes

Supports for platform attached to stirrup only

Additional Requirements-Suspended
additional requirements mobile
Requirements for mobile scaffolds:

Adequately plumbed, braced, level and squared

Must have means to lock wheels/casters

Force to move scaffold no higher than 5 feet above support surface

Power system must be designed for scaffold

Stabilized to prevent tip

Platform must not extend base support without outriggers

Caster stems-pinned

Riding not allowed unless:

surface floor level and free of debris and 2:1 BXH ratio

Outriggers on both sides

No one allowed on extended platform

Additional Requirements-Mobile
additional requirement stilts
Additional Requirement-Stilts
  • Only to be used on large area scaffold
  • Surfaces must be flat and free of pits
  • No obstructions
  • Stilts have to be maintained
  • Guardrails must be raised by an amount equal to stilts
requirements for aerial lifts 29 cfr 1926 453
Meet the design criteria of ANSI

Aerial ladders must be secured in lower traveling position by a locking device before it is moved.

Ext./Art. Platforms:

Boom must be adequately stowed before move

Insulated portion must not be altered

A body belt or harness and lanyard must be used

Employees must stand on floor of basket

Never exceed load capacity

Lift truck shall not be moved with men in basket unless adequately designed (upper controls-personnel carriers)

Brakes set for outrigger use (wheels chock)

Requirements for Aerial Lifts29 CFR 1926.453
aerial lifts
Aerial Lifts
  • Extensible and articulating platforms:
    • Lift controls must be tested each day
    • Authorized employees only
    • No belting off to adjacent structure
  • All pneumatic and hydraulic components comply with ANSI A92.2-1969 and non critical parts must have burst factor 2:1.
training general 29 cfr 1926 454
Training-General29 CFR 1926.454
  • Employees must receive training from qualified person that includes:
    • Nature of electrical, fall, and falling items
    • Use of scaffold/handling
    • Maximum intended load and load carrying capabilities of scaffold
    • Methods for dealing with electrical hazards and fall protection system
    • Requirements of sub L
training setup or dismantling
Training-Setup or Dismantling
  • Employees must be trained in:
    • Nature of scaffold hazards
    • Procedures for setup, dismantling or moving the system
    • Design criteria, maximum intended load carrying capacities and use of scaffold
    • Requirements of subpart L
training need for retraining
Training-Need for Retraining
  • When the employer has reason to believe an employee lacks the skill or understanding needed for safe work involving scaffolds, retraining shall be performed until proficiency is regained. Retraining is required:
    • When additional or new hazards exist.
    • Changes in the type of scaffold and fall protection exist.
    • Where there are inadequacies in an employee’s work.
    • 29 CFR 1926.451
    • NAHB-OSHA Job Site Safety Handbook
    • Construction Industry Digest
  • Scaffolding Industry Association
  • American National Standards Institute
    • A92 (SIA): Scaffolds and other elevating devices