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Revision Multimedia Systems 1 Lecture 1 - The Physics of Sound Lecture 2 - The Java Sound API Lecture 3 - Input Transducers (Microphones) Lecture 4 - Output Transducers (Speakers) Lecture 5 - Manipulating Audio (A/D) Lecture 6 - Manipulating Digital Audio (D/A)

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multimedia systems 1
Multimedia Systems 1
  • Lecture 1 - The Physics of Sound
  • Lecture 2 - The Java Sound API
  • Lecture 3 - Input Transducers (Microphones)
  • Lecture 4 - Output Transducers (Speakers)
  • Lecture 5 - Manipulating Audio (A/D)
  • Lecture 6 - Manipulating Digital Audio (D/A)
  • Lecture 7 - Manipulating Digital Audio (Effects)
  • Lecture 8 - Storing Digital Audio (CD)
  • Lecture 9 - Digital Audio Storage Formats (Wav / MIDI)
  • Lecture 10 - Digital Audio Compression (Perceptual coding)
  • Lecture 11 - PC Audio (Sound cards)
  • Lecture 12 - Issues in Digital Audio (copyright)
physics of sound
Physics of Sound
  • Sound waves
  • Wavelength, Frequency
  • Bandwidth
  • Bass, Treble, Timbre
  • Amplitude, Decibels
  • Harmonics
  • Superposition, Fourier
  • Multiple channels
input transducers
Input Transducers
  • Dynamic and Condensing microphones
    • Construction
    • Principles of operation
    • Advantages/ disadvantages
  • Pick-up patterns
    • Omnidirectional
    • Unidirectional
    • Bidirectional
    • Principles, advantages, disadvantages
input transducers5
Input Transducers
  • Proximity effect, frequency response
  • Balanced system
    • Principle of operation
    • Common mode rejection
    • Phantom Powering
  • Feedback
output transducers
Output Transducers
  • Loudspeakers
    • Components and operation
    • Tweeter, Mid range and woofers
    • Frequency Response
  • Crossovers
    • Passive – low, mid and high pass
    • Active filter
  • Passive and active speakers
output transducers7
Output Transducers
  • Distortion
    • Intermodulation
    • Harmonic
    • Transient
    • Loudness
  • Enclosures
    • Infinite Baffle
    • Vented Enclosure
manipulating audio
Manipulating Audio
  • The Digital domain
    • Advantages / disadvantages
  • Nyquist
  • Aliasing
  • Low pass filtering
    • Digital
    • Analogue
  • Oversampling
manipulating audio9
Manipulating Audio
  • Oversampling
manipulating audio10
Manipulating Audio
  • Quantization
    • Levels
    • Noise
    • Error/Accuracy
  • Dithering
manipulating audio11

Anti-aliasing filter

Anti-aliasing filter

Sample and Hold

Sample and Hold

A to D Converter

A to D Converter

Manipulating Audio
  • A to D Principal elements

Analogue input (L)

Processing (error correction)

Dither generator

Multiplexer

Analogue input (R)

manipulating digital audio

Output sample and Hold

Output lowpass filter

D to A Converter

Processing (error correction)

Reproduction demodulation

Demultiplexer

Output sample and Hold

Output lowpass filter

D to A Converter

Manipulating Digital Audio
  • PCM
    • NRZ, NRZI, FM, PE
  • Error Correction
  • D to A Principal elements
manipulating digital audio13
Manipulating Digital Audio
  • D/A conversion
    • Absolute linearity error
    • Differential linearity error
  • Sample and Hold
  • Low pass filtering
  • Oversampling
manipulating digital audio14
Manipulating Digital Audio
  • Effects
    • Delay
    • Echo
    • Reverb
    • Flanging
    • Pitch,Tempo
  • Amplitude envelope, dynamic range
  • Pan and Balance
storing digital audio

Compact Disc

8 bits P,Q,R,S,T,U,V,W

0.163mm

Parity (32 bits)

Parity (32 bits)

Sync (24 bits)

Sub code

Data (96 bits)

Data (96 bits)

1 Frame

Storing Digital Audio
  • Optical storage
    • Advantages/disadvantages
  • Audio CD
    • Frame structure and operation
    • Audio data
    • Sync word
    • Parity
    • Subcode
storing digital audio16
Storing Digital Audio
  • Audio CD
    • Eight to Fourteen Modulation
      • Reasons
      • Structure
storing digital audio17
Storing Digital Audio
  • CD-ROM Data Block
    • Structure
    • Why extra EDC/ECC
  • DAT
  • Mini Disc
digital audio storage formats
Digital Audio Storage Formats
  • Wave, Au, Aiff
    • Descriptor
    • Format information
    • Data
  • MIDI
    • Advantages/ disadvantages
    • Message Format
      • Status byte, Data byte
    • General MIDI
    • Sequencers
digital audio compression
Digital Audio Compression
  • Psychoacoustics
  • Threshold of Hearing & Masking
digital audio compression20
Digital Audio Compression
  • Amplitude Masking
  • Critical Bands
  • Temporal Masking
  • Perceptual Coding
    • Conceptual operation
  • Joint Stereo Coding
  • MP3
pc audio
PC Audio
  • Sound Card Components
    • Digital I/O
    • CD Analogue Audio Input
    • Line in/out
  • Digital Audio Extraction
    • Advantages/ disadvantages
  • Synthesis
    • FM
    • Wave table
issues in digital audio
Issues in Digital Audio
  • Intellectual Property
  • Copyright
    • Fair Use – Four factors
    • Exceptions
    • Sampling
    • Ownership
    • Licensing
    • Napster
slide23
Fin

Fin