Republic of India 8/15/1947- Day of Independence 1/26/1950- Republic Day Preamble to the Constitution WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a _1[SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC] and to secure to all its citizens:JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the _2[unity and integrity of the Nation]; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
India the continent • 18 official languages • Area 3.28 million sq km, 1.04 billion population • 72% Indo-Aryan, 25% Dravidian 3% other • 80% Hindu, 14% Muslim, 2.4% Christian, 2% Sikh, 0.7% Buddhist, 0.5 % Jains, 0.4% other.
National Flag • Saffron, White and Green • Ashoka Wheel, blue color
National Emblem • Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka • Four Lions, Wheel • Truth alone triumphs
Other • National Anthem – Jana gana mana • National Animal- Tiger • National Bird- Peacock • National Flower- Lotus • National Languages • Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu
Prehistory • Indian history is as old as the history of mankind. Artifacts dating back to as much as 500,000 years have been found Rock Painting, Madhya Pradesh
History, B. C. • Indus Valley Civilization 2500-1500 B.C. • Mohenjodaro • Harappa • Planned city with sewage facilities
History, B. C., cont. • Aryan Immigration from Central Europe (Vedas are composed, caste system established) • 563-483 B. C., Gautama Buddha • 326 B. C., Alexander the Great, invades India. • 300 B. C. Chandragupta Maurya • 272 B. C. Emperor Ashoka, spread of Buddhism.
India, Ano Domini • 52 A. D., St. Thomas comes to India • 325 A.D., Thomas of Canaan • 4th and 5th Century A.D. Gupta Dynasty, India’s golden age. • 10th and 11th Centuries, Turks & Afghan invasion • Marco Polo (1288) • Sikhism (15th century) • Vasco-da-gama 1498
Muslim Influence • Mughals (decendants of Ghengis Khan) • 1526- Babur • 1530- Humayun • 1556- Akbar • 1605- Jehangir • 1627- Shah Jehan (Taj Mahal) • 1627-80 Shivaji (founder of Maratha kingdom) • 1631- Construction on Taj Mahal • 1658- Aurangazeb • 1862- Bahdur Shah, last Mughal emperor
British India • By late 17th Century the British has outpost in Bombay, Madras and Calcutta • By 1850 the British had total control of present day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh • 1857 Sepoy Mutiny (First war of Independence) • 1885, Indian National Congress formed • 1920 Mohandas K. Gandhi transformed the Indian National Congress to a mass movement against British rule.
Fight for Independence • 1919, Massacre at Jallianwala bagh. • 1930, Dandi or Salt March, India’s Boston Tea Party • 1931, Martyrdom of Bhagat Singh. • 1942, Quit India movement
Independent India • On August 15, 1947, India becomes independent with Jawaharlal Nehru as the PM. • Hindu-Muslim rivalry leads to creation of Pakistan • On January 26, 1950 Indian becomes a republic after the adoption of the constitution.
Nehru Speech at Independence. Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long supressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.
India, a vibrant democracy • Except for 2 years of its history, regular elections have been held • Member of select club of countries with nuclear capability and a space program • Of late, a world leader in IT. • Net importer of food to net exporter
Problems facing India • Population: 1 billion and counting • Literacy, less than 1 in 2 people can read. • Others: Corruption, Work Culture,
Resources & Credits • http://www.indianchild.com • http://indiaimage.nic.in • http://www.webindia123.com • http://www.kamat.com