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Purpose and Diversity of Flavonoids in Plants. Jen Taylor BioInformatics 1 May 2003. Phenolics. Group of secondary plant products or compounds Composed of a hydroxyl group attached to an aromatic ring A broad range of compounds - found in all components of plants: leaves, flowers, fruit etc

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Purpose and Diversity of Flavonoids in Plants


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purpose and diversity of flavonoids in plants

Purpose and Diversityof Flavonoids in Plants

Jen Taylor

BioInformatics

1 May 2003

phenolics
Phenolics
  • Group of secondary plant products or compounds
  • Composed of a hydroxyl group attached to an aromatic ring
  • A broad range of compounds - found in all components of plants: leaves, flowers, fruit etc
  • Function of most compounds is unknown
  • Comprised of many groups: Flavonoids, Tannins, Lignin etc. All very chemically diverse!
flavonoids
Flavonoids
  • Water soluble pigment
  • Most widely studied group of phenolics: over 3000 described
  • Seem to have major health

benefits for humans - red

wine and cholesterol

  • Variety of important functions

in plants

flavonoid functions
Flavonoid Functions
  • Combine to create flower pigmentation: serve as signals for pollinators
  • Block UV radiation destructive to nucleic acids
  • Allow selective admittance of Blue-Green and Red light for Photosynthesis
flavonoid functions con t
Flavonoid Functions Con’t.
  • Reduces the palatability of plants or causes herbivores to avoid the plants altogether
  • Affects interaction of plants with other organisms: Inhibit or encourages bacteria and mychorizzae associations
  • Have anti-oxidative effects, antimicrobial anti-carcinogenic and cardio-protective
  • Various classes of Flavoniods: Anthocyanins, Flavonols, Flavones, IsoFlavones
anthocyanins
Anthocyanins
  • Range in color from Red through Purple and Blue
  • Main constituents of plant flower color
  • Important in attracting pollinators and dispersers
  • Mutualistic relationships!
flavonols and flavones
Flavonols and Flavones
  • Mostly colorless pigments in the leaves of plants
  • Control light admittance to leaves: photosynthesis and UV protection
  • Cause of leaf color change in the Fall: As Chlorophyll breaks down - large quantities of flavonols are converted to anthocyanins!
isoflavones
IsoFlavones
  • Found mostly in Legumes (Fabaceae)
  • Allelopathy – herbivory defense, pathogen defense!
flavonoid biosynthesis
Flavonoid Biosynthesis

Constructed from the products of two different pathways

And catalyzed by CHALCONE SYNTHASE

chalcone synthase
Chalcone Synthase
  • Catalyzer of all Flavonoids
  • Collected mRNA sequences of all GCG plants
  • Lilliaceae, Fabaceae, Pinaceae, Cannabaceae, Rosaceae, Pteridophytes
  • Many programs were used to see the relation of Chalcone Synthase genes between plant species
mrna consensus
mRNA Consensus

alliuma.seg acgatacatg cacgtaaacg aacaaatact gaaatccaat ccgaacatga

alliumb.seg caggaaacgc tacatgcacc tgtccgaaga catcctaaac gaaaacccaa

arachis.seg gagatatatg tacttaacgg aggagatctt gaaagaaaac ccaaacatgt

cannabis.seg acgttacatg catttaactg aggagattct caaagaaaat ccaaatcttt

equisetum.seg GAAGTCCGGG ATTAAGAAGC GGTACATGCA CTTGAACAGT GAAATTCTGA

gerbera.seg GGGACTCTCA AAATCCAAGA TCACACACCT CATCTTTTGC ACCACCGCTG

glycine.seg gagatatatg tacctaaacg aagagatctt gaaagagaat ccaaacatgt

humulus.seg GCGTTACATG CACTTAACTG AGGAGATCCT TAAGGAGAAT CCAAATCTTT

hypericum.seg acgttacatg tacctgaacg aggagattct gaaggagaac cccaatatgt

malus.seg acgttatatg tacttgactg aagaaatttt aaaagagaac ccaagtgtgt

msatvia.seg CTGAAGTCAC TGCAGTTACA TTTCGCGGCC CTAGTGATAC TCACTTGGAC

pinus1.seg atccgcaata aaaaagagat atatgtactt gacagaggag atcctccagg

pinus2.seg atccgcaata aaaaagagat atatgtactt gacagaggag atccttcagg

psilotum.seg CATGCATCTT ACTCCAGAAA TCCTGGAAGC TAATCCTGCC ATGTGCGCCT

rubus11.seg gcgttacatg tacttaactg aagaaatcct gaaggagaat cctagtatgt

rubus5.seg gcgttacatg tacttgacgg aagaaatcct gaaggagaat cctagtatgt

rubus6.seg gcgttacatg tacttgacgg aagaaatcct gaaggagaat cctagtatgt

senna2.seg gcgatacatg catttaaccg aagatcttct aaaggagaat cctaatatgt

senna3.seg aagatacatg catttgacag aagagatcct aaaggagaac cctaacatgt

senns1.seg gagatacatg cacttgacag aggagatcct caaggagaac cctaacatgt

sorghum.seg gatgattagg aagcgttaca tgcatttgac tgaggacatc ctagaggaga

Consensus --G--A-ATG -A----A--- A--A--T--T -AA-GA-AA- -C-A------

protein consensus
Protein Consensus

pileup_108.msf{translate_105} QDIVVVEVPK LGKSAAQSAI KEWGRPKAHI THLIFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_106} QDIVVVEIPK LGKSAAQAAI KEWGRPKSHI THLIFCTTSG GDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_96} QDMVVVEVPR LGKEAAAKAI KEWGQPKSKI THVIFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_97} QDMVVVEVPR LGKEAAAKAI KEWGQPKSKI THVIFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_89} QDMVVVEVPK LGKEAATKAI KEWGQPKSKI THLIVCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_89-2} QDMVVVEVPK LGKEAATKAI KEWGQPKSKI THLIVCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_87} QDIVVLEVPK LGKEAATKAI KEWGQPKSKI THLIFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_88} QDIVVLEVPK LGKEAATKAI KEWGQPKSKI THLIFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_101} QDMVVVEVPK LGKEAAVKAI KEWGQPKSKI THLIFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_104} QDMVVVEVPR LGKEAATKAI KEWGQPKSKI THLIFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_103} QDMVVVEVPK LGKEAATKAI KEWGQPKSKI THLVFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_100} QDMVVVEVPK LGKEAATKAI KEWGQPKSEI THVVFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_93} QDMVVVEIPK LGKEAATKAI KEWGQPKSKI THLVFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_94} QDMVVVEIPK LGKEAATKAI KEWGQPKSKI THLVFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_90} QDMVVVEIPK LGKEAATKAI KEWGQPKSKI THLVFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_99} QDMVVVEVPK LGKEAAIKAI KEWGQPKSKI THLVFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_98} QDIVVVEVPK LGKEAAVRAI KEWGQPKSKI THLVFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

pileup_108.msf{translate_102} QDIAVVEVPK LGKEASLKAI KEWGQPKSKI THLVFCTTSG VDMPGADWAL

pileup_108.msf{translate_95} QDIVVIEVPK LGKEAAVKAI KEWGQPRTKI THLVFCTTSG VDMPGADWTL

Consensus QD-VVVEVPK LGKEAA-KAI KEWGQPKSKI THLIFCTTSG VDMPGADYQL

phylogenetic tree
Phylogenetic Tree

Fabaceae = Blue

Rosaceae = Red

Cannabaceae = Orange

Pteridophytes = Purple

Pinaceae = Green

Lilliaceae = Yellow

localization potential by family
Localization Potential by Family
  • Fabaceae (one branch), Cannabaceae, Lilliaceae, Pinaceae = 45% cytoplasm
  • Rosaceae = 60% cytoplasm
  • Fabaceae (other branch) and Pteridophytes = 34% mitochondrial matrix
  • Relation to Phylogenetic Tree?
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Flavonoids serve a variety of important functions in all plants
  • Chalcone synthase exists in a variety of plant species
  • Gene sequence and protein location may be indicators of flavonoid function in plants!