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Parks and Nature Preserves. Outline. Parks and Nature Preserves History Problems Size and Design Wilderness Areas Wildlife Refuges Wetlands Values Destruction. PARKS AND NATURE PRESERVES. Origins and History

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parks and nature preserves

Parks and Nature Preserves

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

outline
Outline
  • Parks and Nature Preserves
    • History
    • Problems
    • Size and Design
  • Wilderness Areas
  • Wildlife Refuges
  • Wetlands
    • Values
    • Destruction

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

parks and nature preserves1
PARKS AND NATURE PRESERVES
  • Origins and History
    • Sacred groves were set aside for religious purposes, and grounds preserved for royalty.
    • Natural landscaping popular in England in 1700s; created illusion of nature.
    • Aristocrats excluded peasants’ harvesting within hunting estates

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

central park
Central Park
  • New York’s Central Park 1844
    • Provide healthful open space.
      • Designed by Frederick Law Olmstead.

father of landscape architecture.

          • Became original commissioner of Yosemite in California.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

yellowstone
Yellowstone
  • First US area set aside to protect wild nature.
      • Designated the first National Park in the world in1872.
        • National Park Service founded in 1916.
        • Eliminated evidence of human use.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

u s national parks
U.S. National Parks
  • US national park system has grown to 376 parks, monuments, historic sites and recreation areas.
    • 300 million visitors annually.
      • State and local parks have 1/16th the area of national parks, yet 2x visitors.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

park problems
Park Problems
  • Islands of nature surrounded and threatened by destructive land uses and growing human populations.
  • Number of visitors increased by 1/3rd in past decade, park budgets decreased by 25%
    • Estimated $6-8 billion for overdue repairs and restoration alone.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

park problems1
Park Problems
  • Air Pollution
    • Acid Rain
    • Photochemical Smog
  • Mining and Oil Interests
  • Incompatible uses.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

wildlife
Wildlife
  • Historically, parks killed “bad” animals (wolves) in favor of “good” animals (elk).
    • Unbalanced ecosystems, created false illusion of nature.
  • Today’s policy of “natural regulation.”
    • Bison populations
      • Hunted off park property
      • Brucellosis and domestic cattle

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

slide11

Buffalo killing at Yellowstone

`

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

slide12

Buffalo killing at Yellowstone

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

new directions
New Directions
  • Several parks removed facilities that conflict with natural values.
  • Proposals to close a number of parks to tourists to protect ecosystems.
    • Airsheds, watersheds, and animal territories and migration routes often extend far beyond official boundaries.
      • Biogeographical area must be managed as a unit.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

new parks and monuments
New Parks and Monuments
  • Solution to to create new parks.
    • Grand Staircase-Escalante
      • Desert canyonlands in southern Utah.
        • Sits atop potentially trillions of dollars worth on natural resources.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

world parks preserves and refuges
World Parks, Preserves and Refuges
  • 4% of landmass
  • North and Central America have the largest fraction (10% of their land area - 33% of total protected area).
    • Former Soviet Union only has 3% of total.
  • Currently about 300 world biosphere reserves in 75 countries.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

slide16

Sustainable

Human use

and benefit

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

size and design of nature preserves
Size and Design of Nature Preserves
  • Ideally, a reserve should be large enough
    • To support viable populations of endangered species,
    • To keep ecosystems intact
    • To isolate critical core areas from external forces.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

size and design of nature preserves1
Size and Design of Nature Preserves
  • For some species, several small isolated refuges can support viable populations.
    • But cannot support species requiring large amounts of space.
      • Corridors of natural habitat to allow movement of species from one area to another can help maintain genetic exchange in fragmented areas.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

conservation and economic development
Conservation and Economic Development
  • Ecotourism can be more beneficial to over the long-term than extractive industries.
      • Wildlife watching, outdoor recreation can be source of income.
      • But ecotourism can extend impacts into new untouched areas.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

slide23

Indigenous Communities and Reserves

  • Areas chosen for nature preservation are often traditional lands of indigenous people.
    • Often hurt traditional economies by restricting access or cultural practices.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

maasai herders and tanzania national parks
Maasai herders and Tanzania national parks

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

wilderness areas
WILDERNESS AREAS
  • A belief in wilderness is deeply embedded in our culture.
  • 1964 - Wilderness Act defined wilderness:
    • “An area of undeveloped land affected primarily by the forces of nature, where man is a visitor who does not remain…”

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

wilderness areas1
Wilderness Areas
  • Most of areas meeting these standards are in the Western US and Alaska.
    • “Pure” interpretation of area with no history of development, only 1/4th of roadless areas qualify.
      • Prolonged battle has been waged over de-facto wilderness areas.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

wilderness areas2
Wilderness Areas
  • Arguments for preservation:
    • Refuge for endangered wildlife.
    • Solitude and primitive recreation.
    • Baseline for ecological research.
    • Area left in natural state.
  • For many people in developing countries, the idea of pristine wilderness is neither important or interesting.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

wildlife refuges
WILDLIFE REFUGES
  • 51 national wildlife refuges in US, 1901. Now 511 refuges in every major biome in NA.
  • Refuge Management
    • Originally intended to be sanctuaries in which wildlife would be protected from hunting or other disturbances.
      • 1948 - Hunting allowed in refuges.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

wildlife refuges1
Wildlife Refuges
  • Over the years, a number of other uses have been allowed to operate within wildlife refuge boundaries.
    • Oil and Gas Drilling
    • Cattle Grazing
    • Motor-boating
  • Refuges also face threats from external sources - expanding human populations, water pollution

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

wetlands
WETLANDS
  • Wetland - Shallow water body or an area where the ground is wet long enough to support plants specialized to grow under saturated soil conditions.
    • Wetland Values
      • Highly productive habitat for wildlife.
      • Occupy 5% of US land, but at least 1/3rd of endangered species use wetlands.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

wetland values
Wetland Values
  • Storage of flood waters.
  • Natural water purification systems.
  • Coastal Wetlands
    • Used by nearly two-thirds of all marine fish and shellfish.
    • Stabilize shorelines and help reduce flood damage.
    • Recreational Opportunities.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

wetland destruction
Wetland Destruction
  • Throughout much of history, wetlands have been considered disagreeable and useless.
      • 1850s to 1990s-- governments encouraged wetland drainage.
        • 2/3rds of original wetlands destroyed.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

wetlands destruction
Wetlands Destruction

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

wetland destruction1
Wetland Destruction
  • Clean Water Act (1972) protected wetlands by requiring discharge permits.
  • Farm Bill (1985) blocked agricultural subsidies to farmers who drain or damage wetlands.
    • These laws are not necessarily effectively enforced.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

wetlands and flood control
Wetlands and Flood Control
  • Floodplains - Low lands along riverbanks, lakes, and coastlines subjected to periodic inundation.
    • Valuable due to rich soil, level topography, convenient water supply, access to shipping, and recreational potential.
      • River control systems have protected communities, but tend to channelize rivers, speeding flow of water and exacerbating flooding downstream.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

summary
Summary
  • Parks and Nature Preserves
    • History
    • Problems
    • Size and Design
  • Wilderness Areas
  • Wildlife Refuges
  • Wetlands
    • Values
    • Destruction

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.